Strategic Interaction vs. Regulatory Compliance among Regulated Utilities: The Swedish Water Sector
This study provides the first empirical test of strategic interactions in the pricing decisions of regulated utilities. Since publicly owned water utilities in Sweden are governed by a cost-of-service regulation, prices in neighboring municipalities should not affect the own price other than through spatially correlated cost factors. In contrast, spatial dependence is pronounced. This behavior can be explained in terms of an informal yardstick competition: When consumers use neighboring utilities' prices as benchmarks for costs or as behaviorally based reference prices, utilities will face the risk of consumer complaints and successive regulatory reviews if deviating too much from neighbors' prices.
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- Federico Belotti & Gordon Hughes & Andrea Piano Mortari, 2013.
"xsmle: A Stata command for spatial panel-data models estimation,"
German Stata Users' Group Meetings 2013
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- Federico Belotti & Gordon Hughes & Andrea Piano Mortari, 2013. "xsmle: a Stata command for spatial panel-data models estimation," Italian Stata Users' Group Meetings 2013 04, Stata Users Group.
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- Bivand, Roger & Szymanski, Stefan, 1997. "Spatial dependence through local yardstick competition:: theory and testing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 257-265, August.
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