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Where Schumpeter was nearly Right - the Swedish Model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy

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  • Henrekson, Magnus

    () (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics)

  • Jakobsson, Ulf

    () (The Research Institute of Industrial Economics)

Abstract

In Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy Joseph A. Schumpeter concluded that socialism would eventually displace capitalism in Western democracies. This would come about as a result of the superior performance of capitalism. We extract six "stylized" propositions that are essential elements of Schumpeter's prediction about the fate of capitalism. These propositions are confronted with the development of the Swedish economy. The three main results of the analysis are: (1) The evolution of the Swedish economy closely followed Shumpeter's predictions until about 1980: Large firms became increasingly predominant in production and innovative activity, ownership of firms became more and more concentrated, individual entrepreneurship waned in importance, the general public grew increasingly hostile towards capitalism, and by the late 1970s explicit proposals for a gradual transfer of ownership of firms from private hands were launched. (2) Design of tax and industrial policies fueled a development of the economy along the lines predicted by Schumpeter. In general, the policies discouraged private wealth accumulation. In particular, the policies favored concentration of firms and concentration of private ownership. (3) The turning point away from the path to socialism coincides with real world developments that disclosed two major flaws in Schumpeter´s analysis. First, the ever more obvious failure of socialism in Eastern Europe went against Schumpeter's assertion that socialism can work. Second, Schumpeter, who thought that modern technology would make the giant corporation increasingly predominant, did not foresee the revival of entrepreneurship that took place in the Western countries around 1980.

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  • Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2000. "Where Schumpeter was nearly Right - the Swedish Model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 370, Stockholm School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:hastef:0370
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    Cited by:

    1. Almas Heshmati & Dan Johansson & Carl Magnus Bjuggren, 2010. "Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 297-317, September.
    2. Du Rietz, Gunnar & Johansson, Dan & Stenkula, Mikael, 2014. "Swedish Capital Income Taxation (1862–2013)," Working Paper Series 1004, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 10 Sep 2015.
    3. Gerhard Schnyder, 2008. "Does Social Democracy Matter? Corporate Governance Reforms in Switzerland and Sweden (1980-2005)," Working Papers wp370, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    4. Magnus Henrekson, 2005. "Entrepreneurship: a weak link in the welfare state?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 437-467, June.
    5. Johan Eklund, 2010. "Q-theory of investment and earnings retentions—evidence from Scandinavia," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 793-813, December.
    6. Magnus Henrekson & Daniel Waldenström, 2016. "Inheritance taxation in Sweden, 1885–2004: the role of ideology, family firms, and tax avoidance," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 69(4), pages 1228-1254, November.
    7. Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2003. "The Swedish Model of Corporate Ownership and Control in Transition," Working Paper Series 593, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    8. Henrekson, Magnus & Sanandaji, Tino, 2016. "Owner-Level Taxes and Business Activity," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 12(1), pages 1-94, March.
    9. Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2011. "The Swedish Corporate Control Model: Convergence, Persistence or Decline?," Working Paper Series 857, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    10. Zoltan J. Acs & David Audretsch & Ronnie J. Phillips & Sameeksha Desai, 2007. "The Entrepreneurship-Philanthropy Nexus: Nonmarket Source of American Entrepreneurial Capitalism," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2007-09, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    11. Lindbeck, Assar, 2003. "An Essay on Welfare State Dynamics," Working Paper Series 595, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    12. Bergman, Karin & Ejermo, Olof, 2011. "Swedish Business R&D and its Export Dependence," Papers in Innovation Studies 2011/5, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    13. Stenkula Mikael, 2014. "Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective," Nordic Tax Journal, Sciendo, vol. 2014(2), pages 10-42, November.
    14. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2001. "Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Policies towards the Commercialization of University Intellectual Property," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 463, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 26 May 2002.
    15. Douhan, Robin & Henrekson, Magnus, 2007. "The Political Economy of Entrepreneurship: An Introduction," Working Paper Series 688, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    16. Douhan, Robin & Henrekson, Magnus, 2007. "The Political Economy of Entrepreneurship," Working Paper Series 716, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    17. Olof Ejermo & Karin Bergman, 2014. "Services vs. Manufacturing – How Does Foreign and Domestic Sales Impact on Their R&D?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 367-391, September.
    18. Henrekson, Magnus & Stenkula, Mikael, 2015. "Swedish Taxation since 1862: An Overview," Working Paper Series 1052, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 10 Sep 2015.
    19. Schnyder, G., 2010. "Varieties of Insider Corporate Governance: Centre-Right Preferences and the Determinants of Reform in the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland," Working Papers wp406, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    20. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
    21. Henrekson Magnus, 2017. "Taxation of Swedish Firm Owners: The Great Reversal from the 1970s to the 2010s," Nordic Tax Journal, Sciendo, vol. 2017(1), pages 26-46, January.
    22. Douhan, Robin & Henrekson, Magnus, 2008. "Productive and Destructive Entrepreneurship in a Political Economy Framework," Working Paper Series 761, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    23. Peter Hogfeldt, 2005. "The History and Politics of Corporate Ownership in Sweden," NBER Chapters,in: A History of Corporate Governance around the World: Family Business Groups to Professional Managers, pages 517-580 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Du Rietz, Gunnar & Johansson, Dan & Stenkula, Mikael, 2014. "A 150-year Perspective on Swedish Capital Income Taxation," HUI Working Papers 101, HUI Research.
    25. Fogel, Kathy S. & Lee, Kevin K. & Lee, Wayne Y. & Palmberg, Johanna, 2013. "Foreign Investors as Change Agents: The Swedish Firm Experience," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 311, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.

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    Keywords

    Corporatism; entrepreneurship; industrial policy; Schumpeter; Swedish Model;

    JEL classification:

    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • P16 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Political Economy of Capitalism

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