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Russian Migration Policy and Its Impact on Human Development

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  • Irina Ivakhnyuk

    () (Department of Population, Lomonosov Moscow State University)

Abstract

For Russia, migration policy – in terms of internal or/and international migration flows management – was an ever-important element of the State activities. Concentrated on State interests, the policy also resulted in human development. The paper presents a historical overview of the Soviet and Russian migration policies with special emphases on the impact on human development and the driving forces behind the changing policies. The Soviet period can be characterized as contradiction between strict limitations on the freedom of movement provided by the propiska system, and large-scale population movements, both voluntary and involuntary, that were inspired by economic and administrative policy measures to meet labor demand of an industrializing economy. In the post-Soviet period, international migration is the major focus of the Russian migration policy. The Russian Federation is the major receiving country in the vast former USSR territory. The evolution of Russian migration policy in the post- Soviet period is a good example for getting a better understanding of how the everlasting conflict between the need for additional human resources and anti-immigrant public moods (typical of all receiving countries), combined with the opportunistic considerations of political elites, that hampers the elaboration of a reasonable long-term migration strategy. Russian migration policy has been drifting from a relatively open immigration regulation based on a laissez faire approach in the early 1990s to restrictive immigration laws in the early 2000s and to an ‘open door’ migration policy in respect to CIS citizens in 2007.

Suggested Citation

  • Irina Ivakhnyuk, 2009. "Russian Migration Policy and Its Impact on Human Development," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2009-14, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), revised Apr 2009.
  • Handle: RePEc:hdr:papers:hdrp-2009-14
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    File URL: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/papers/HDRP_2009_14.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fan, Shenggen & Chan-Kang, Connie & Mukherjee, Anit, 2005. "Rural and urban dynamics and poverty: Evidence from China and India," FCND discussion papers 196, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
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    3. Bob Baulch & John Hoddinott, 2000. "Economic mobility and poverty dynamics in developing countries," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6), pages 1-24.
    4. Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, 2006. "Gendered Livelihoods in Small Mines and Quarries in India: Living on the edge," ASARC Working Papers 2006-08, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    5. Priya Deshingkar & Pramod Sharma & Sushil Kumar & Shaheen Akter & John Farrington, 2008. "Circular migration in Madhya Pradesh: changing patterns and social protection needs," The European Journal of Development Research, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 20(4), pages 612-628.
    6. Ben Rogaly & Daniel Coppard & Abdur Safique & Kumar Rana & Amrita Sengupta & Jhuma Biswas, 2002. "Seasonal Migration and Welfare/Illfare in Eastern India: A Social Analysis," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 89-114.
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    Cited by:

    1. Crescenzi, Riccardo & Jaax, Alexander, 2017. "Innovation in Russia: the territorial dimension," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 66948, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    2. Esther Ademmer, 2011. "You Make Us Do What We Want! The Usage of External Actors and Policy Conditionality in the European Neighborhood," KFG Working Papers p0032, Free University Berlin.
    3. Riccardo Crescenzi & Alexander Jaax, 2015. "Innovation in Russia: the territorial dimension," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1509, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Apr 2015.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Human development; internal migration; international migration; migration policy; Russia;

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration

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