On party-proportional representation under district distortions
The paper presents the problem of choosing the representatives in an assembly when the whole electoral region is subdivided into electoral districts. Because of the two dimensions, geographical (districts) and political (parties), the problem is called bi-apportionment. Often the allocation of seats to districts is pre-determined and furthermore distorted ---meaning that the ratios of the number of assigned seats to population size vary significantly across districts. The paper surveys proposed bi-apportionment methods with a focus on the conflict that may arise between party-proportional representation under district distortions.
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- Sebastian Maier & Petur Zachariassen & Martin Zachariasen, 2010. "Divisor-Based Biproportional Apportionment in Electoral Systems: A Real-Life Benchmark Study," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(2), pages 373-387, February.
- Gallagher, Michael, 1992. "Comparing Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Quotas, Thresholds, Paradoxes and Majorities," British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(04), pages 469-496, October.
- Gabrielle Demange & Michel Balinski, 1989.
"An Axiomatic Approach to Proportionality between Matrices,"
- Michel Balinski & Gabrielle Demange, 1989. "An Axiomatic Approach to Proportionality between Matrices," Post-Print hal-00686748, HAL.
- Marjorie B. Gassner, 1991. "Biproportional Delegations," Journal of Theoretical Politics, SAGE Publishing, vol. 3(3), pages 321-342, July.
- Michel Balinski & Gabrielle Demange, 1989. "Algorithm for Proportional Matrices in Reals and Integers," Post-Print halshs-00585327, HAL.
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