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Worms at work: Long-run impacts of a child health investment


  • Sarah Baird

    () (George Washington University)

  • Joan Hamory Hicks

    (University of California, Berkeley)

  • Michael Kremer

    (Harvard University)

  • Edward Miguel

    (University of California, Berkeley)


This study estimates long-run impacts of a child health investment, exploiting community-wide experimental variation in school-based deworming. The program increased education among women and labor supply among men, with accompanying shifts in labor market specialization. Ten years after deworming treatment, women who were eligible as girls are 25% more likely to have attended secondary school, halving the gender gap. They reallocate time from traditional agriculture into cash crops and entrepreneurship. Men who were eligible as boys stay enrolled for more years of primary school, work 17% more hours each week, spend more time in entrepreneurship, are more likely to hold manufacturing jobs, and miss one fewer meal per week. We estimate an annualized financial internal rate of return of at least 32.2%.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarah Baird & Joan Hamory Hicks & Michael Kremer & Edward Miguel, 2015. "Worms at work: Long-run impacts of a child health investment," Working Papers 2015-16, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
  • Handle: RePEc:gwi:wpaper:2015-16

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    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Worms at work: Long-run impacts of a child health investment
      by maximorossi in NEP-LTV blog on 2015-11-06 23:07:01


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    Cited by:

    1. Cilliers, Jacobus & Kasirye, Ibrahim & Leaver, Clare & Serneels, Pieter & Zeitlin, Andrew, 2018. "Pay for locally monitored performance? A welfare analysis for teacher attendance in Ugandan primary schools," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 69-90.
    2. Christopher Blattman & Stefan Dercon, 2016. "Occupational Choice in Early Industrializing Societies: Experimental Evidence on the Income and Health Effects of Industrial and Entrepreneurial Work," Working Papers id:11361, eSocialSciences.
    3. Christopher Blattman & Nathan Fiala & Sebastian Martinez, 2018. "The Long Term Impacts of Grants on Poverty: 9-year Evidence From Uganda's Youth Opportunities Program," NBER Working Papers 24999, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Aline Bütikofer & Kjell Salvanes, 2018. "Disease Control and Inequality Reduction: Evidence from a Tuberculosis Testing and Vaccination Campaign," Working Papers 2018-048, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    5. Butikofer, Aline & Salvanes, Kjell G, 2018. "Disease Control and Inequality Reduction: Evidence from a Tuberculosis Testing and Vaccination Program," CEPR Discussion Papers 13061, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Pascaline Dupas & Edward Miguel, 2016. "Impacts and Determinants of Health Levels in Low-Income Countries," NBER Working Papers 22235, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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