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What Drove the Mass Migrations from Europe in the Late Ninteenth Century

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  • Hatton, T.J.
  • Williamson, J.G.

Abstract

This paper examines the determinants of overseas mass migration from eleven European countries in the late 19th century. They typically passed through something like a half-century life-cycle: a steep rise in emigration rates from low levels in preindustrial decades, followed by a plateau of very high emigration, and then a subsequent fall during more mature stages of industrialization. Using a new real wage data base, we are able to isolate the impact of economic and demographic forces (associated with the industrial revolution) on this emigration experience. The steep rise in emigration rates was driven mainly by fertility boom and infant mortality decline, events early in the demographic transition which, with a two decade lag, tended to glut the age cohort most responsive to wage gaps between the labor-abundant Old World and the labor-scarce New World. The steep fall in emigration rates was driven mainly by the forces of convergence and catching up -- more rapid real wage growth at home encouraged an increasingly large share to stay at home. Since we show elsewhere that these mass migrations contributed significantly to an impressive late 19th century economic convergence, they can be viewed as an important part of a long run equilibrium adjustment manifested by an evolving global labor market.
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Suggested Citation

  • Hatton, T.J. & Williamson, J.G., 1992. "What Drove the Mass Migrations from Europe in the Late Ninteenth Century," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1614, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:harver:1614
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    Cited by:

    1. Diego Alberto Sandoval Herrera & María Fernanda Reyes Roa, 2012. "¿Por qué los migrantes envían remesas?: Repaso de las principales motivaciones microeconómicas," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 010036, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    2. Emmanuel Letouzé & Mark Purser & Francisco Rodríguez & Matthew Cummins, 2009. "Revisiting the Migration-Development Nexus: A Gravity Model Approach," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2009-44, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), revised Oct 2009.
    3. Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 2011. "Are Third World Emigration Forces Abating?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 20-32, January.
    4. Robert E. B. Lucas, 2005. "Migration internationale vers les pays à haut revenu : quelles conséquences pour le développement économique des pays d'origine ?," Revue d’économie du développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 13(4), pages 123-171.
    5. Suzan van der Pas & Jacques Poot, 2011. "Migration Paradigm Shifts and Transformation of Migrant Communities: The Case of Dutch Kiwis," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1112, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    6. Tarbalouti, Essaid, 2008. "Investissement, protectionnisme et décision de migration internationale
      [Investment, protectionism and decision of international migration]
      ," MPRA Paper 56310, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Vladimir Kontorovich, 2000. "Can Russia Resettle the Far East?," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 365-384.
    8. Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2009. "Vanishing Third World Emigrants?," NBER Working Papers 14785, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Boustan, Leah Platt, 2009. "Competition in the Promised Land: Black Migration and Racial Wage Convergence in the North, 1940–1970," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 69(03), pages 755-782, September.
    10. Lingxin Hao, 2000. "Public Assistance and Private Support of Immigrants," JCPR Working Papers 171, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    11. Bengtsson, Erik, 2016. "Inequality and the working class in Scandinavia 1800 to 1910 - Workers' share of growing income," Lund Papers in Economic History 142, Lund University, Department of Economic History.
    12. Ran Abramitzky & Leah Platt Boustan & Katherine Eriksson, 2012. "Europe's Tired, Poor, Huddled Masses: Self-Selection and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(5), pages 1832-1856, August.
    13. David Khoudour-Casteras, 2005. "Migrations internationales, régimes de change et politiques sociales : un nouveau trilemme de politique économique ?," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/f4rshpf3v1u, Sciences Po.
    14. Williamson, Jeffrey G., 1998. "Growth, Distribution, and Demography: Some Lessons from History," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 241-271, July.
    15. Douglas S. MASSEY, 2012. "Towards an integrated model of international migration," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 3, pages 9-35, December.
    16. Rowlands, Dane, 1999. "Domestic Governance and International Migration," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1477-1491, August.
    17. Khoudour-Casteras, David, 2004. "The Impact of Bismarck's Social Legislation on German Emigration Before World War I," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt6cs0d4xw, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    18. Joshua L. Rosenbloom, 1996. "The Extent of the Labor Market in the United States, 1850-1914," NBER Historical Working Papers 0078, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Grant, Oliver, 2003. "Globalisation versus de-coupling: German emigration and the evolution of the Atlantic labour market 1870-1913," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 387-418, October.

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    Keywords

    emigration ; historical analysis;

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