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On the Stability of Different Financial Systems

  • Falko Fecht

An economy in which deposit-taking banks of a Diamond/ Dybvig style and an asset market coexist is modelled. Firstly, within this framework we characterize distinct financial systems depending on the fraction of households with direct investment opportunities that are less efficient than those available to banks. With this fraction comparatively low, the evolving financial system can be interpreted as market-oriented. In this system, banks only provide efficient investment opportunities to households with inferior investment alternatives. Banks are not active in the secondary financial market nor do they provide any liquidity insurance to their depositors. Households participate to a large extent in the primary as well as in the secondary financial markets. In the other case of a relatively high fraction of households with inefficient direct investment opportunities, a bank-dominated financial system arises, in which banks provide liquidity transformation, are active in secondary financial markets and are the only player in primary markets, while households only participate in secondary financial markets. Secondly, we analyze the effect a run on a single bank has on the entire financial system. Interestingly, we can show that a bank run on a single bank causes contagion via the financial market neither in market-oriented nor in extremely bank-dominated financial systems. But in only moderately bank-dominated (or hybrid) financial systems fire sales of long-term financial claims by a distressed bank cause a sudden drop in asset prices that precipitates other banks into crisis.

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Paper provided by Department of Finance, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main in its series Working Paper Series: Finance and Accounting with number 110.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:fra:franaf:110
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  1. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1999. "A Theory of Bank Capital," NBER Working Papers 7431, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, . "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," CRSP working papers 476, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  3. Xavier Freixas & Bruno Parigi & Jean Charles Rochet, 1998. "Systemic risk, interbank relations and liquidity provision by the Central Bank," Economics Working Papers 440, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Sep 1999.
  4. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
  5. Gabriele Galati & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2001. "The impact of the euro on Europe's financial markets," BIS Working Papers 100, Bank for International Settlements.
  6. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 2003. "Banks and Markets: the Changing Character of European Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3865, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 2001. "Comparative Financial Systems: A Survey," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 01-15, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  8. Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick & Dewatripont, Mathias, 2000. "Contagious bank failures in a free banking system," Scholarly Articles 12490629, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  9. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1994. "A welfare comparison of intermediaries and financial markets in Germany and the U.S," Working Papers 95-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  10. Alexandra Lai, 2002. "Modelling Financial Instability: A Survey of the Literature," Working Papers 02-12, Bank of Canada.
  11. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1998. "Financial Contagion Journal of Political Economy," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-31, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  12. Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick & Dewatripont, Mathias, 2000. "Contagious bank failures in a free banking system," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(4-6), pages 713-718, May.
  13. Douglas W. Diamond, . "Liquidity, Banks and Markets," CRSP working papers 326, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  14. Schmidt, Reinhard H. & Hackethal, Andreas & Tyrell, Marcel, 1999. "Disintermediation and the Role of Banks in Europe: An International Comparison," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 8(1-2), pages 36-67, January.
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