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A historical assessment of the rationales and functions of reserve requirements

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  • Marvin Goodfriend
  • Monica Hargraves

Abstract

Laws requiring banks to hold a volume of reserves equal to a prescribed fraction of their deposits originated in this country more than a century ago. Since then both the financial system and the rationales supporting reserve requirements have changed considerably. Nevertheless, the practice of requiring reserves has continued without interruption. This article examines the history and function of reserve requirements at the national level and assesses the validity of various prominent reserve requirement rationales.

Suggested Citation

  • Marvin Goodfriend & Monica Hargraves, 1983. "A historical assessment of the rationales and functions of reserve requirements," Working Paper 83-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedrwp:83-01
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Coats, Warren L, Jr, 1976. "Lagged Reserve Accounting and the Money Supply Mechanism," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 8(2), pages 167-180, May.
    2. Auernheimer, Leonardo, 1974. "The Honest Government's Guide to the Revenue from the Creation of Money," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(3), pages 598-606, May/June.
    3. anonymous, 1938. "The history of reserve requirements for banks in the United States," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Nov, pages 953-972.
    4. Sargent, Thomas J & Wallace, Neil, 1982. "The Real-Bills Doctrine versus the Quantity Theory: A Reconsideration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1212-1236, December.
    5. John Wilson Million, 1894. "The Debate on the National Bank Act of 1863," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2, pages 251-251.
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    Cited by:

    1. Robert Darin & Robert L. Hetzel, 1994. "A shift-adjusted M2 indicator for monetary policy," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Sum, pages 25-48.
    2. Steven Russell & Marco A. Espinosa-Vega, 1990. "The inflationary effects of the use of reserve ratio reductions, or open market purchases, to reduce market interest rates: a theoretical comparison," Working Papers 1990-006, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    3. Marvin Goodfriend, 2001. "Why we need an "accord" for Federal Reserve credit policy : a note," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 23-32.
    4. Ken B. Cyree & Mark D. Griffiths & Drew B. Winters, 2003. "On the pervasive effects of Federal Reserve settlement regulations," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 27-46.
    5. Lucas, Robert E. & Nicolini, Juan Pablo, 2015. "On the stability of money demand," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 48-65.
    6. Tovar, Camilo & Garcia-Escribano, Mercedes & Vera, Mercedes, 2012. "El crecimiento del crédito y la efectividad de los requerimientos de encaje y otros instrumentos macroprudenciales en América Latina," Revista Estudios Económicos, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, issue 24, pages 45-64.
    7. Jaremski, Matthew & Mathy, Gabriel, 2018. "How was the quantitative easing program of the 1930s Unwound?," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 27-49.
    8. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Reserve Requirements," WIFO Working Papers 420, WIFO.
    9. Bennett T. McCallum, 1993. "Specification and Analysis of a Monetary Policy Rule for Japan," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 11(2), pages 1-45, December.
    10. Paul D. Mueller & Joshua Wojnilower, 2016. "The Federal Reserve's Floor System: Immediate Gain for Remote Pain?," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 31(Summer 20), pages 15-40.
    11. Garbade, Kenneth D., 2016. "Repurchase agreements as an instrument of monetary policy at the time of the Accord," Staff Reports 780, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    12. Marco Vega & Adrian Armas & Paul Castillo, 2014. "Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, vol. 0(Fall 2014), pages 133-175, June.
    13. Christian Glocker & Pascal Towbin, 2012. "Reserve Requirements for Price and Financial Stability: When Are They Effective?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 8(1), pages 65-114, March.
    14. Bindseil, Ulrich, 1997. "Die Stabilisierungswirkungen von Mindestreserven," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 1997,01, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    15. Singleton,John, 2010. "Central Banking in the Twentieth Century," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899093, August.

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    Keywords

    Bank reserves ; Federal Reserve System;

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