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Economic effects of apportionment formula changes : results from a panel of corporate income tax returns

Author

Listed:
  • Kelly Edmiston
  • F. Javier Arze del Granado

Abstract

To date empirical studies of the economic effects of changes in state corporate income tax apportionment policies have used only highly aggregated, state-level data. This study uses data at the individual firm level, which is provided by a population of corporate income tax returns from the State of Georgia over the period 1992 – 2002, to evaluate the economic development and revenue aspects of increasing the sales factor weight (and uniformly lowering the weights on payroll and property) in state corporate income tax apportionment formulas. Looking at the firm level, we find elasticities sufficiently large to lead to substantial impact on local sales ( - 6.5 percent), payroll (2.0 percent) and property (2.1 percent) following a move to double-weighted sales. For the average firm, increases in Georgia payroll and property were $37,110 and $190,829, respectively, while the decrease in Georgia sales for the average firm was $634,367. Based on 1994 figures (the year prior to double-weighting), this amounts to state-wide increases in payroll and property of $0.6 billion and $3.1 billion, respectively, and a decrease in gross receipts of approximately $10.4 billion.

Suggested Citation

  • Kelly Edmiston & F. Javier Arze del Granado, 2004. "Economic effects of apportionment formula changes : results from a panel of corporate income tax returns," Community Affairs Research Working Paper 2005-03, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedkcw:2005-03
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    File URL: http://www.kansascityfed.org/publicat/cap/Edmiston_WP_Apportionment.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Edmiston, Kelly D., 2002. "Strategic Apportionment of the State Corporate Income Tax: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 55(N. 2), pages 239-262, June.
    2. Cornia, Gary & Edmiston, Kelly D. & Sjoquist, David L. & Wallace, Sally, 2005. "The Disappearing State Corporate Income Tax," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, pages 115-138.
    3. Goolsbee, Austan & Maydew, Edward L., 2000. "Coveting thy neighbor's manufacturing: the dilemma of state income apportionment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 125-143.
    4. Klassen, Kenneth J. & Shackelford, Douglas A., 1998. "State and provincial corporate tax planning: income shifting and sales apportionment factor management," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, pages 385-406.
    5. Charles E. McLure Jr., 1981. "The Elusive Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax: The State Case," Public Finance Review, , vol. 9(4), pages 395-413, October.
    6. George R. Zodrow, 2008. "Corporate Income Taxation in Canada," Working Papers 0819, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    7. Goolsbee, Austan & Maydew, Edward L., 2000. "Coveting thy neighbor's manufacturing: the dilemma of state income apportionment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 125-143.
    8. Gordon, Roger H & Wilson, John Douglas, 1986. "An Examination of Multijurisdictional Corporate Income Taxation under Formula Apportionment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(6), pages 1357-1373, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Keser, Claudia & Kimpel, Gerrit & Oestreicher, Andreas, 2014. "The CCCTB option: An experimental study," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 199, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    2. MIYOSHI Yoshiyuki, 2017. "Does Sales Factor Apportionment Benefit the Welfare of State?," Discussion papers 17124, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    3. Claudia Keser & Gerrit Kimpel & Andreas Oestreicher, 2014. "The CCCTB option an experimental study," CIRANO Working Papers 2014s-24, CIRANO.
    4. Keser, Claudia & Kimpel, Gerrit & Oestreicher, Andreas, 2014. "The CCCTB option an experimental study," Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100490, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    5. Claudia Keser & Gerrit Kimpel & Andreas Oestreicher, 2016. "Would a CCCTB mitigate profit shifting?," CIRANO Working Papers 2016s-29, CIRANO.

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