Recovering risk aversion from options
Cross-sections of option prices embed the risk-neutral probability densities functions (PDFs) for the future values of the underlying asset. Theory suggests that risk-neutral PDFs differ from market expectations due to risk premia. Using a utility function to adjust the risk-neutral PDF to produce subjective PDFs, we can obtain measures of the risk aversion implied in option prices. Using FTSE 100 and S&P 500 options, and both power and exponential utility functions, we show that subjective PDFs accurately forecast the distribution of realizations, while risk-neutral PDFs do not. The estimated coefficients of relative risk aversion are all reasonable. The relative risk aversion estimates are remarkably consistent across utility functions and across markets for given horizons. The degree of relative risk aversion declines with the forecast horizon and is lower during periods of high market volatility.
|Date of creation:||2001|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O. Box 834, 230 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60690-0834|
Web page: http://www.chicagofed.org/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Web: http://www.chicagofed.org/webpages/publications/print_publication_order_form.cfm Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John H. Cochrane & Lars Peter Hansen, 1992.
"Asset Pricing Explorations for Macroeconomics,"
NBER Working Papers
4088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jens Carsten Jackwerth, 1998.
"Recovering Risk Aversion from Option Prices and Realized Returns,"
- Jackwerth, Jens Carsten, 2000. "Recovering Risk Aversion from Option Prices and Realized Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(2), pages 433-51.
- Jens Carsten Jackwerth., 1996. "Recovering Risk Aversion from Option Prices and Realized Returns," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-265, University of California at Berkeley.
- Hui Guo & Robert Whitelaw, 2005.
"Uncovering the risk-return relation in the stock market,"
2001-001, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Hui Guo & Robert F. Whitelaw, 2006. "Uncovering the Risk-Return Relation in the Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(3), pages 1433-1463, 06.
- Hui Guo & Robert F. Whitelaw, 2003. "Uncovering the Risk-Return Relation in the Stock Market," NBER Working Papers 9927, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jorion, Philippe & Giovannini, Alberto, 1993.
"Time-series tests of a non-expected-utility model of asset pricing,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1083-1100, June.
- Alberto Giovannini & Philippe Jorion, 1989. "Time-Series Tests of a Non-Expected-Utility Model of Asset Pricing," NBER Working Papers 3195, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diebold, Francis X & Gunther, Todd A & Tay, Anthony S, 1998. "Evaluating Density Forecasts with Applications to Financial Risk Management," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 863-83, November.
- René Garcia & Eric Renault, 1998.
"Risk Aversion, Intertemporal Substitution, and Option Pricing,"
98-10, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Garcia, R. & Renault, E., 1998. "Risk Aversion, Intertemporal Substitution, and Option Pricing," Cahiers de recherche 9801, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- René Garcia & Éric Renault, 1998. "Risk Aversion, Intertemporal Substitution, and Option Pricing," CIRANO Working Papers 98s-02, CIRANO.
- GARCIA, René & RENAULT, Éric, 1998. "Risk Aversion, Intertemporal Substitution, and Option Pricing," Cahiers de recherche 9801, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- repec:crs:wpaper:9810 is not listed on IDEAS
- Friend, Irwin & Blume, Marshall E, 1975. "The Demand for Risky Assets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(5), pages 900-922, December.
- Francis X. Diebold & Anthony S. Tay & Kenneth F. Wallis, 1998.
"Evaluating Density Forecasts of Inflation: The Survey of Professional Forecasters,"
98-15, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Francis X. Diebold & Anthony S. Tay & Kenneth F. Wallis, 1997. "Evaluating Density Forecasts of Inflation: The Survey of Professional Forecasters," NBER Working Papers 6228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ait-Sahalia, Yacine & Lo, Andrew W., 2000.
"Nonparametric risk management and implied risk aversion,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 9-51.
- Yacine Ait-Sahalia & Andrew W. Lo, 2000. "Nonparametric Risk Management and Implied Risk Aversion," NBER Working Papers 6130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ferson, Wayne E. & Constantinides, George M., 1991.
"Habit persistence and durability in aggregate consumption: Empirical tests,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 199-240, October.
- Wayne E. Ferson & George M. Constantinides, 1991. "Habit Persistence and Durability in Aggregate Consumption: Empirical Tests," NBER Working Papers 3631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Duffee, Gregory R, 1996.
" Idiosyncratic Variation of Treasury Bill Yields,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 51(2), pages 527-51, June.
- Berkowitz, Jeremy, 2001. "Testing Density Forecasts, with Applications to Risk Management," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(4), pages 465-74, October.
- Ait-Sahalia, Yacine & Wang, Yubo & Yared, Francis, 2001. "Do option markets correctly price the probabilities of movement of the underlying asset?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 67-110, May.
- R. Mehra & E. Prescott, 2010.
"The equity premium: a puzzle,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
1401, David K. Levine.
- Bartunek, Kenneth S & Chowdhury, Mustafa, 1997. "Implied Risk Aversion Parameter from Option Prices," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 32(1), pages 107-24, February.
- Hansen, Lars Peter & Singleton, Kenneth J, 1982. "Generalized Instrumental Variables Estimation of Nonlinear Rational Expectations Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(5), pages 1269-86, September.
- Barone-Adesi, Giovanni & Whaley, Robert E, 1987. " Efficient Analytic Approximation of American Option Values," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 301-20, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-01-15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bernie Flores)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.