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Macroeconomic risk and asset pricing: estimating the apt with observable factors

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  • John Ammer

Abstract

This paper develops and applies a new maximum likelihood method for estimating the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) model with observable risk factors. The approach involves simultaneous estimation of the factor loadings and risk premiums and can be applied to return panel with more securities than time series observations per security. Observable economic factors are found to account for 25 to 40 percent of the covariation in U.S. equity returns, and the APT pricing restrictions cannot be rejected for most sample periods. A significant "firm size anomaly" is measured, but it may be partly due to sample selection bias.

Suggested Citation

  • John Ammer, 1993. "Macroeconomic risk and asset pricing: estimating the apt with observable factors," International Finance Discussion Papers 448, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:448
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    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/ifdp/1993/448/default.htm
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    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/ifdp/1993/448/ifdp448.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Campbell, John Y & Ammer, John, 1993. " What Moves the Stock and Bond Markets? A Variance Decomposition for Long-Term Asset Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 3-37, March.
    2. Garcia, Rene & Perron, Pierre, 1996. "An Analysis of the Real Interest Rate under Regime Shifts," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 111-125, February.
    3. Roll, Richard & Ross, Stephen A, 1980. " An Empirical Investigation of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(5), pages 1073-1103, December.
    4. Banz, Rolf W., 1981. "The relationship between return and market value of common stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-18, March.
    5. Burmeister, Edwin & McElroy, Marjorie B, 1988. " Joint Estimation of Factor Sensitivities and Risk Premia for the Arbitrage Pricing Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 721-733, July.
    6. Connor, Gregory & Korajczyk, Robert A., 1988. "Risk and return in an equilibrium APT : Application of a new test methodology," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 255-289, September.
    7. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    8. Huberman, Gur & Schwert, G William, 1985. "Information Aggregation, Inflation, and the Pricing of Indexed Bonds," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(1), pages 92-114, February.
    9. Gur Huberman & Zhenyu Wang, 2005. "Arbitrage pricing theory," Staff Reports 216, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
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    Cited by:

    1. John Ammer, 1994. "Inflation, inflation risk, and stock returns," International Finance Discussion Papers 464, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. John Ammer, 1996. "Macroeconomic state variables as determinants of asset price covariances," International Finance Discussion Papers 553, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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    Keywords

    Arbitrage ; Macroeconomics;

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