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Spend and Tax or Tax and Spend? Panel Data Evidence from Finnish Municipalities during 1985 - 1999

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  • Moisio, Antti

Abstract

This paper studies the dynamic interrelationship between total expenditures, own source revenues, grants received from state and loans in Finnish municipalities. Two separate panel data sets that cover the years 1985-1992 for matching grants period and 1993-1999 for formula based grant period are used for all municipalities. The analysis is done using the VAR method for panel data. I find, first, that there are important dynamic interrelationships between the variables in question. Second, I find that during the matching grants period, expenditures Granger-cause revenues uni-directionally, whereas during the formula based grants system the revenues and expenditures Granger-cause each other. The grants Granger-cause expenditures during both periods. In the end of the 1990s municipalities have been able to pay off their loans primarily by cutting expenditures and not by increasing own source revenues.

Suggested Citation

  • Moisio, Antti, 2000. "Spend and Tax or Tax and Spend? Panel Data Evidence from Finnish Municipalities during 1985 - 1999," Discussion Papers 242, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:fer:dpaper:242
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    File URL: https://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/148141
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hoover, Kevin D & Sheffrin, Steven M, 1992. "Causation, Spending, and Taxes: Sand in the Sandbox or Tax Collector for the Welfare State?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 225-248, March.
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    3. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1989. "The Revenues-Expenditures Nexus: Evidence from Local Government Data," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 30(2), pages 415-429, May.
    4. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    5. Barro, Robert J, 1979. "On the Determination of the Public Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 940-971, October.
    6. Hondroyiannis, George & Papapetrou, Evangelia, 1996. "An Examination of the Causal Relationship between Government Spending and Revenue: A Cointegration Analysis," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 89(3-4), pages 363-374, December.
    7. Bohn, Henning, 1991. "Budget balance through revenue or spending adjustments? : Some historical evidence for the United States," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 333-359, June.
    8. von Furstenberg, George M & Green, R Jeffrey & Jeong, Jin-Ho, 1986. "Tax and Spend, or Spend and Tax?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 179-188, May.
    9. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    10. Meltzer, Allan H & Richard, Scott F, 1981. "A Rational Theory of the Size of Government," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(5), pages 914-927, October.
    11. Matz Dahlberg & Eva Johansson, 1998. "The revenues-expenditures nexus: panel data evidence from Swedish municipalities," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(10), pages 1379-1386.
    12. Ram, Rati, 1988. "A Multicountry Perspective on Causality between Government Revenue and Government Expenditure," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 43(2), pages 261-270.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:ksp:journ1:v:4:y:2017:i:1:p:53-70 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Antti Moisio, 2001. "On Local Government Spending and Taxation Behaviour - effect of population size and economic condition," Discussion Papers 257, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).

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