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Upstream Mergers, Downstream Mergers, and Secret Vertical Contracts

  • Fumagalli, C.
  • Motta, M.

In an industry characterised by secret vertical contracts, we consider a benchmark case where two vertical chains exist, with two upstream manufacturers selling to two downstream retailers, and show that the equilibrium prices are independent of whether upstream or downstream firms have all the bargaining power. We then analyse two alternative mergers, and show that a downstream merger (which gives the downstream monopolist all the bargaining power) is more welfare detrimental than an upstream merger (which gives the bargaining power to the upstream monopolist). We also show that downstream and upstream mergers have the same effects when contracts are observable.

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Paper provided by European University Institute in its series Economics Working Papers with number eco99/38.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 1999
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eui:euiwps:eco99/38
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  1. McAfee, R Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1994. "Opportunism in Multilateral Vertical Contracting: Nondiscrimination, Exclusivity, and Uniformity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 210-30, March.
  2. Lin, Y Joseph, 1988. "Oligopoly and Vertical Integration: Note," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(1), pages 251-54, March.
  3. Andreas IRMEN, 1995. "Note on Duopolistic Vertical Restraints," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9507, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
  4. Irmen, Andreas, 1998. " Precommitment in Competing Vertical Chains," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 333-59, September.
  5. Paul Dobson & Michael Waterson, 1999. "Retailer power: recent developments and policy implications," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 14(28), pages 133-164, 04.
  6. Hart, O. & Tirole, J., 1990. "Vertical Integration And Market Foreclosure," Working papers 548, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  7. Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-65, March.
  8. Gal-Or, Esther, 1991. "Duopolistic vertical restraints," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1237-1253, August.
  9. G.F. Mathewson & R.A. Winter, 1984. "An Economic Theory of Vertical Restraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 27-38, Spring.
  10. Stiglitz, J. & Rey, P., 1988. "Vertical Restraints And Producers' Competition," Papers 13, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
  11. Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1992. "Vertical Control with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 299-308, Autumn.
  12. Greg Shaffer, 1991. "Slotting Allowances and Resale Price Maintenance: A Comparison of Facilitating Practices," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(1), pages 120-135, Spring.
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