May the Worst Commodity Standard be the Best? A Re-enactment of "The Crimes of 1873"
This paper establishes new existence and welfare results for the Kiyotaki-Wright model  considering mixed strategies that do not restrict agents to play a unique strategy for each opportunity set. For a general version of the model, I construct many stable equilibria in which goods with poor storage properties are widely accepted while better goods are less accepted. Furthermore, I show that these equilibria may be socially desirable because more trade occurs that in the alternative equilibria in which better goods are those which are widely accepted. The nontechnical intuition is that if intrinsically attractive objects have great acceptance, people would be very reluctant to trade them away. In contrast, if intrinsically unattractive objects are the objects that are widely accepted, people would be less reluctant to trade them away and, consequently, more trade may occur. By analogy, those results may be helpful in analyzing historical episodes in which a society faced the choice of a commodity standard; say, the election between a gold standard and a silver standard. For instance, my welfare results may help us to evaluate the controversial rush after 1867 to adopt the gold standard, the appreciating standard, by the great commercial nations of the time. In fact, we may have a reconstruction in a general equilibrium model of the so-called crimes of 1873 in US and France (see Friedman [1990 b] and Flandreau ). That is, my results may suggest that keeping (as in China, India, Mexico, etc.) the silver standard, the depreciating standard, was a sound economic policy decision as discussed for some protagonists. Therefore, we may have some support to the alleged claim of some silver advocates that the "worst standard was the best;" that is, perhaps with more precision, that the intrinsically worst commodity standard may be the socially best one.
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- Kehoe, Timothy J & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993.
"More on Money as a Medium of Exchange,"
Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 3(2), pages 297-314, April.
- Timothy J. Kehoe & Nobuhiro Kiyotaki & Randall Wright, 1991. "More on money as a medium of exchange," Staff Report 140, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Aiyagari, S. Rao & Wallace, Neil, 1997. "Government Transaction Policy, the Medium of Exchange, and Welfare," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 1-18, May.
- S. Rao Aiyagari & Neil Wallace, 1995. "Government transaction policy, the medium of exchange, and welfare," Working Papers 516, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Juan-Manuel Renero, 1998. "Unstable and stable steady-states in the Kiyotaki-Wright model," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 11(2), pages 275-294.
- S. Rao Aiyagari & Neil Wallace, 1991. "Existence of Steady States with Positive Consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(5), pages 901-916.
- S. Rao Aiyagari & Neil Wallace, 1991. "Existence of steady states with positive consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright model," Working Papers 428, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Marimon, Ramon & McGrattan, Ellen & Sargent, Thomas J., 1990. "Money as a medium of exchange in an economy with artificially intelligent agents," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 329-373, May.
- Friedman, Milton, 1990. "Bimetallism Revisited," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 85-104, Fall.
- Aiyagari, S Rao & Wallace, Neil, 1992. "Fiat Money in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 2(4), pages 447-464, October.
- Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
- Renero, Juan-Manuel, 1999. "Does and Should a Commodity Medium of Exchange Have Relatively Low Storage Costs?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 251-264, May. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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