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More on Money as a Medium of Exchange

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  • Kehoe, Timothy J
  • Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro
  • Wright, Randall

Abstract

We extend the analysis of Kiyotaki and Wright, who study economies where the commodities that serve as media of exchange (or, commodity money) are determined endogenously. Kiyotaki and Wright consider only steady-state, pure-strategy equilibria; here we allow dynamic and mixed-strategy equilibria. We demonstrate that symmetric, steady-state equilibria in mixed-strategies always exist, while sometimes no such equilibria exist in pure-strategies. We prove that the number of symmetric steady-state equilibria is generically finite. We also show, however, that for some parameter values there exists a continuum of dynamic equilibria. Further, some equilibria display cycles.

Suggested Citation

  • Kehoe, Timothy J & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993. "More on Money as a Medium of Exchange," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 3(2), pages 297-314, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:joecth:v:3:y:1993:i:2:p:297-314
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mas-Colell,Andreu, 1990. "The Theory of General Economic Equilibrium," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521388702, November.
    2. Jovanovic, Boyan & Rosenthal, Robert W., 1986. "Anonymous Sequential Games," Working Papers 86-12, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
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    10. Ken Burdett & Randall Wright, 1998. "Two-Sided Search with Nontransferable Utility," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(1), pages 220-245, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jack Ochs & John Duffy, 1999. "Emergence of Money as a Medium of Exchange: An Experimental Study," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 847-877.
    2. Ellingsen, Tore, 1998. "Payments in Kind," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 244, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 10 Feb 2000.
    3. Phillip M Johnson, 2002. "Essays on Capital Markets: Frictions and Social Forces," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000052, David K. Levine.
    4. Sethi, Rajiv, 1999. "Evolutionary stability and media of exchange," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 233-254, November.
    5. Willem H. Buiter, 2003. "James Tobin: An Appreciation of his Contribution to Economics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(491), pages 585-631, November.
    6. Darrell Duffie & Lei Qiao & Yeneng Sun, 2015. "Dynamic Directed Random Matching," NBER Working Papers 21731, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Wright, Randall, 1995. "Search, evolution, and money," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 181-206.
    8. Gabriele Camera, 2001. "Search, Dealers, and the Terms of Trade," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(3), pages 680-694, July.
    9. Oberfield, Ezra & Trachter, Nicholas, 2012. "Commodity money with frequent search," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(6), pages 2332-2356.
    10. Coles, Melvyn G. & Wright, Randall, 1998. "A Dynamic Equilibrium Model of Search, Bargaining, and Money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 32-54, January.
    11. R. O. Cavalcanti & Daniela Puzzello, 2010. "Stationarity without degeneracy in a model of commodity money," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), pages 263-280.
    12. Williamson, Stephen & Wright, Randall, 2010. "New Monetarist Economics: Models," Handbook of Monetary Economics,in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 25-96 Elsevier.
    13. Brown, Paul M., 1996. "Experimental evidence on money as a medium of exchange," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 583-600, April.
    14. S. Rao Aiyagari & Neil Wallace, 1991. "Existence of Steady States with Positive Consumption in the Kiyotaki-Wright Model," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, pages 901-916.
    15. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Lagos, Ricardo & Wright, Randall, 2016. "Introduction to the symposium issue on money and liquidity," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 1-9.
    16. William Luther, 2014. "Evenly rotating economy: A new modeling technique for an old equilibrium construct," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 403-417, December.
    17. Peter Rupert & Martin Schindler & Andrei Shevchenko & Randall Wright, 2000. "The search-theoretic approach to monetary economics: a primer," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q IV, pages 10-28.
    18. Maurizio Iacopetta, 2014. "Dynamics of assets liquidity and inequality in economies with decentralized markets," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/2029nqlehl8, Sciences Po.
    19. Juan-Manuel Renero, 2000. "May the Worst Commodity Standard be the Best? A Re-enactment of "The Crimes of 1873"," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1522, Econometric Society.
    20. Nobuhiro Kiyotaki & Randall Wright, 1990. "Search for a Theory of Money," NBER Working Papers 3482, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Luo, Guo Ying, 1998. "The evolution of money as a medium of exchange," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 415-458, November.
    22. Bilge Ozturk, 2003. "An evolutionary model of the emergence of the media of exchange," Working Papers hal-00242982, HAL.

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