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The determinants of subjective poverty: A comparative analysis in Madagascar and Peru

Author

Listed:
  • Javier Herrera

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Mireille Razafindrakoto

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • François Roubaud

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

Abstract

(english) The multidimensionality of poverty is now fully acknowledged. A number of studies show a weak correlation between the monetary approach to poverty and household's subjective perception of wellbeing. Recent studies in developed countries demonstrate that well-being is not only based on monetary income or consumption, but also on other factors such as employment and health. This paper examines the factors that determine households’ subjective evaluation of their living standards, through a comparative analysis in two developing countries, Peru and Madagascar. Our study is based on a first-hand database grouping objective individual variables (the households’ socio-economic characteristics, environment and individual trajectories, provided by the two surveys’ panel studies), and identical questions on subjective well-being for both countries. How much do income levels influence households' welfare perceptions? Do these depend on the level of income and/or the relative position with respect to a given reference group? Apart from income, does the type of labour market inclusion or job quality have a significant impact on subjective well-being? To what extent do individual trajectories and local environment affect well-being (social origin, spatial inequalities in the district)? Finally, how important are the new dimensions of poverty such as vulnerability and social and political exclusion? _________________________________ (français) Le caractère multidimensionnel de la pauvreté est aujourd'hui universellement reconnu. Un certain nombre d'études montrent une faible corrélation entre l'approche monétaire de la pauvreté et la perception des ménages de leur bien-être. Des travaux récents ont pu montrer que, dans les pays développés, cette dernière ne dépend pas seulement du niveau de revenu ou de consommation, mais aussi d'autres facteurs (emploi, santé, etc.). Cette contribution se propose d'explorer les facteurs qui déterminent l'évaluation subjective des ménages de leur niveau de vie à partir d'une analyse comparative portant sur deux pays en développement, le Pérou et Madagascar. Pour ce faire, l'étude mobilise une base de données originale, comptant à la fois des variables individuelles objectives (caractéristiques socio-économiques des ménages, environnement et trajectoires individuelles obtenues grâce à la dimension panel des deux enquêtes), ainsi que des mesures subjectives du bienêtre identiques pour les deux pays. Quelle est la contribution du revenu à la perception du bien-être ? Celle-ci dépend-elle du niveau de revenu et/ou de la position relative par rapport à un groupe de référence qu'il convient d'identifier ? Au-delà des revenus, le type d'insertion sur le marché du travail et la qualité de l’emploi ont-ils une influence significative sur le bien-être subjectif ? Dans quelle mesure la trajectoire d’un individu et son environnement immédiat jouent sur son bien-être (origine sociale, inégalités spatiales au niveau du quartier) ? Enfin, quel est le poids des nouvelles dimensions de la pauvreté telles que la vulnérabilité et l’exclusion sociale et politique ?

Suggested Citation

  • Javier Herrera & Mireille Razafindrakoto & François Roubaud, 2006. "The determinants of subjective poverty: A comparative analysis in Madagascar and Peru," Working Papers DT/2006/01, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200601
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    File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2006/2006-01
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zhang Huafeng, 2016. "Household vulnerability and economic status during disaster recovery and its determinants: a case study after the Wenchuan earthquake," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 83(3), pages 1505-1526, September.
    2. Dorrit Posel & Michael Rogan, 2016. "Measured as Poor versus Feeling Poor: Comparing Money-metric and Subjective Poverty Rates in South Africa," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 55-73, February.
    3. Guillen-Royo, Monica, 2011. "Reference group consumption and the subjective wellbeing of the poor in Peru," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 259-272, March.
    4. Laura Camfield & Awae Masae & J. McGregor & Buapun Promphaking, 2013. "Cultures of Aspiration and Poverty? Aspirational Inequalities in Northeast and Southern Thailand," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 114(3), pages 1049-1072, December.
    5. Amit Kundu, 2011. "Can Microcredit And Job Under Nregs Jointly Bring More Happiness To The Villagers?," The IUP Journal of Governance and Public Policy, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1), pages 7-23, March.
    6. Dorrit Posel & Michael Rogan, 2014. "Measured as Poor Versus Feeling Poor: Comparing Objective and Subjective Poverty Rates in South Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2014-133, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Isabel Günther & Johannes K. Maier, 2014. "Poverty, Vulnerability, and Reference-Dependent Utility," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 155-181, March.
    8. Andrew E. Clark & Claudia Senik, 2010. "Will GDP growth increase happiness in developing countries?," PSE Working Papers halshs-00564985, HAL.
    9. Dartanto, Teguh & Otsubo, Shigeru, 2013. "Measurements and Determinants of Multifaceted Poverty:Absolute, Relative, and Subjective Poverty in Indonesia," Working Papers 54, JICA Research Institute.
    10. Ravallion, Martin & Himelein, Kristen & Beegle, Kathleen, 2013. "Can subjective questions on economic welfare be trusted ? evidence for three developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6726, The World Bank.
    11. Carol Graham, 2008. "Measuring Quality of Life in Latin America: What Happiness Research Can (and Cannot) Contribute," Research Department Publications 4598, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    12. repec:dau:papers:123456789/14464 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Giuseppina Guagnano & Elisabetta Santarelli & Isabella Santini, 2016. "Can Social Capital Affect Subjective Poverty in Europe? An Empirical Analysis Based on a Generalized Ordered Logit Model," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(2), pages 881-907, September.
    14. Mireille Razafindrakoto & François Roubaud & Jean-Michel Wachsberger, 2014. "Jalons pour une économie politique de la trajectoire malgache : une perspective de long terme," Working Papers DT/2014/21, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    15. Posel, Dorrit & Rogan, Michael, 2014. "Measured as poor versus feeling poor: Comparing objective and subjective poverty rates in South Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 133, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Victoria Reyes-García & Ronnie Babigumira & Aili Pyhälä & Sven Wunder & Francisco Zorondo-Rodríguez & Arild Angelsen, 2016. "Subjective Wellbeing and Income: Empirical Patterns in the Rural Developing World," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 773-791, April.
    17. Monica Guillen-Royo, 2008. "Consumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 89(3), pages 535-555, December.
    18. Leonardo Becchetti & Stefano Castriota & Nazaria Solferino, 2011. "Development Projects and Life Satisfaction: An Impact Study on Fair Trade Handicraft Producers," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 115-138, March.
    19. Martin Ravallion & Kristen Himelein & Kathleen Beegle, 2016. "Can Subjective Questions on Economic Welfare Be Trusted?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(4), pages 697-726.
    20. Ravallion, Martin, 2012. "Poor, or just feeling poor ? on using subjective data in measuring poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5968, The World Bank.
    21. Monica Guillen-Royo, 2019. "Television, Sustainability and Subjective Wellbeing in Peru," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 141(2), pages 895-917, January.
    22. Isabella Santini & Anna de Pascale, "undated". "Social capital and its impact on poverty reduction: measurement issues in longitudinal and cross-country comparisons. Towards a unified framework in the European Union," Working Papers 101/12, Sapienza University of Rome, Metodi e Modelli per l'Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza MEMOTEF.
    23. Isabel Günther & Johannes K. Maier, 2014. "Poverty, Vulnerability, and Reference-Dependent Utility," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 155-181, March.
    24. Monica Guillen-Royo & Tim Kasser, 2015. "Personal Goals, Socio-Economic Context and Happiness: Studying a Diverse Sample in Peru," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 405-425, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Subjective wellbeing; peer group effects; capacity to aspire; relative income; panel data Madagascar; Peru; Bien-être subjectif; pauvreté; groupes de comparaison; aspirations; revenu relatif; données de panel; Madagascar; Pérou.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • D60 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - General
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities

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