IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Nonparametric Tests for Positive Quadrant Dependence


  • DENUIT, Michel

    (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))

  • SAILLET, Olivier

    (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))


We consider distributional free inference to test for positive quadrant dependence, i.e. for the probability that two variables are simultaneously small (or) large being at least as great as it would be were they dependent. Tests for its generalisation in higher dimensions, namely positive orthant dependences, are also analysed. We propose two types of testing procedures. The first procedure is based on the specification of the dependence concepts in terms of distribution functions, while the second procedure exploits the copula representation. For each specification a distance test and an intersection-union test for inequality constraints are developed depending on the definition of null and alternative hypotheses. An empirical illustration is given for US and Danish insurance claim data. Practical implications for the design of reinsurance treaties are also discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • DENUIT, Michel & SAILLET, Olivier, 2001. "Nonparametric Tests for Positive Quadrant Dependence," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2001009, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 01 Apr 2001.
  • Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvir:2001009

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. O. Scaillet, 2004. "Nonparametric Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of Expected Shortfall," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 115-129.
    2. Gourieroux, Christian & Holly, Alberto & Monfort, Alain, 1982. "Likelihood Ratio Test, Wald Test, and Kuhn-Tucker Test in Linear Models with Inequality Constraints on the Regression Parameters," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 63-80, January.
    3. Denuit, Michel & Dhaene, Jan & Ribas, Carmen, 2001. "Does positive dependence between individual risks increase stop-loss premiums?," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 305-308, June.
    4. Yaari, Menahem E, 1987. "The Dual Theory of Choice under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(1), pages 95-115, January.
    5. Donald W. K. Andrews, 1999. "Estimation When a Parameter Is on a Boundary," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(6), pages 1341-1384, November.
    6. Pinquet, Jean, 1998. "Designing Optimal Bonus-Malus Systems from Different Types of Claims," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(02), pages 205-220, November.
    7. Valentino Dardanoni & Antonio Forcina, 1999. "Inference for Lorenz curve orderings," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 2(1), pages 49-75.
    8. Milgrom, Paul R & Weber, Robert J, 1982. "A Theory of Auctions and Competitive Bidding," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(5), pages 1089-1122, September.
    9. K. Dachraoui & G. Dionne, 2000. "Optimal Financial Portfolio and Dependence of Risky Assets," THEMA Working Papers 2000-57, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    10. Haim Levy, 1992. "Stochastic Dominance and Expected Utility: Survey and Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(4), pages 555-593, April.
    11. Kodde, David A & Palm, Franz C, 1986. "Wald Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequality Restriction s," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1243-1248, September.
    12. Wolak, Frank A., 1989. "Local and Global Testing of Linear and Nonlinear Inequality Constraints in Nonlinear Econometric Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(01), pages 1-35, April.
    13. Russell Davidson & Jean-Yves Duclos, 2000. "Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(6), pages 1435-1464, November.
    14. Dhaene, Jan & Goovaerts, Marc J., 1996. "Dependency of Risks and Stop-Loss Order," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(02), pages 201-212, November.
    15. Klugman, Stuart A. & Parsa, Rahul, 1999. "Fitting bivariate loss distributions with copulas," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 139-148, March.
    16. McNeil, Alexander J., 1997. "Estimating the Tails of Loss Severity Distributions Using Extreme Value Theory," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(01), pages 117-137, May.
    17. Kaur, Amarjot & Prakasa Rao, B.L.S. & Singh, Harshinder, 1994. "Testing for Second-Order Stochastic Dominance of Two Distributions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(05), pages 849-866, December.
    18. Pollard, David, 1985. "New Ways to Prove Central Limit Theorems," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(03), pages 295-313, December.
    19. Wolak, Frank A., 1989. "Testing inequality constraints in linear econometric models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 205-235, June.
    20. Charles M. Beach & Russell Davidson, 1983. "Distribution-Free Statistical Inference with Lorenz Curves and Income Shares," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 723-735.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Lee & Myoung-jae, 2004. "Monotonicity Conditions and Inequality Imputation for Sample Selection and Non-Response Problems," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 93, Econometric Society.
    2. Ranoua Bouchouicha, 2010. "Dépendance entre risques extrêmes : Application aux Hedge Funds," Working Papers 1013, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    3. Kaïs Dachraoui & Georges Dionne, 2004. "Conditions Ensuring the Separability of Asset Demand for All Risk-Averse Investors," Cahiers de recherche 0411, CIRPEE.
    4. Garcia, René & Tsafack, Georges, 2011. "Dependence structure and extreme comovements in international equity and bond markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 1954-1970, August.
    5. Kaas, Rob & Laeven, Roger J.A. & Nelsen, Roger B., 2009. "Worst VaR scenarios with given marginals and measures of association," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 146-158, April.
    6. Laureano Escudero & Eva-María Ortega, 2009. "How retention levels influence the variability of the total risk under reinsurance," TOP: An Official Journal of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research, Springer;Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa, vol. 17(1), pages 139-157, July.
    7. Genest, Christian & Segers, Johan, 2010. "On the covariance of the asymptotic empirical copula process," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 101(8), pages 1837-1845, September.

    More about this item


    Nonparametric; Stochastic Ordering; Positive Quadrant Dependence; Positive Orthant Dependence; Copula; Inequality Constraint Test; Risk Management; Loss Severity Distribution;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ctl:louvir:2001009. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anne DAVISTER-LOGIST). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.