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The end of the European Paradox

  • Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
  • Herranz, Neus

This paper evaluates the European Paradox according to which Europe plays a leading world role in terms of scientific excellence, measured in terms of the number of publications, but lacks the entrepreneurial capacity of the U.S. to transform this excellent performance into innovation, growth, and jobs. Citation distributions for the U.S., the European Union (EU), and the rest of the world are evaluated using a pair of high- and low-impact indicators, as well as the mean citation rate. The dataset consists of 3.6 million articles published in 1998-2002 with a common five-year citation window. The analysis is carried at a low aggregation level: the 219 sub-fields identified with the Web of Science categories distinguished by Thomson Scientific. The problems posed by international co-authorship and the multiple assignments of articles to sub-fields are solved following a multiplicative strategy. In the first place, we find that, although the EU has more publications than the U.S. in 113 out of 219 sub-fields, the U.S. is ahead of the EU in 189 and 163 sub-fields in terms of the high- and low-impact indicators. In the second place, we verify that using the high-impact indicator the U.S./EU gap is usually greater than when using the mean citation rate.

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Paper provided by Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía in its series UC3M Working papers. Economics with number we1127.

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Date of creation: Sep 2011
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Handle: RePEc:cte:werepe:we1127
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.eco.uc3m.es/

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  1. Albarrán, Pedro & Ortuño, Ignacio & Ruiz-Castillo, Javier, 2011. "High- and low-impact citation measures: Empirical applications," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 122-145.
  2. Ruiz-Castillo, Javier & Ortuño, Ignacio & Crespo, Juan A. & Albarrán, Pedro, 2011. "The skewness of science in 219 sub-fields and a number of aggregates," UC3M Working papers. Economics we1109, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
  3. Javier Ruiz-Castillo, 2012. "The evaluation of citation distributions," SERIEs- Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 291-310, March.
  4. Albarrán, Pedro & Ruiz-Castillo, Javier & Ortuño, Ignacio, 2009. "The measurement of low- and high-impact in citation distributions : technical results," UC3M Working papers. Economics we095735, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
  5. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
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