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Demand-Based Option Pricing

  • Garleanu, Nicolae Bogdan
  • Pedersen, Lasse Heje
  • Poteshman, Allen M

We model the demand-pressure effect on prices when options cannot be perfectly hedged. The model shows that demand pressure in one option contract increases its price by an amount proportional to the variance of the unhedgeable part of the option. Similarly, the demand pressure increases the price of any other option by an amount proportional to the covariance of their unhedgeable parts. Empirically, we identify aggregate positions of dealers and end users using a unique dataset, and show that demand-pressure effects contribute to well-known option-pricing puzzles. Indeed, time-series tests show that demand helps explain the overall expensiveness and skew patterns of both index options and single-stock options.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 5420.

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Date of creation: Dec 2005
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:5420
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  1. George M. Constantinides & Jens Carsten Jackwerth & Stylianos Perrakis, 2008. "Mispricing of S&P 500 Index Options," NBER Working Papers 14544, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Jeffrey Wurgler & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2002. "Does Arbitrage Flatten Demand Curves for Stocks?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 583-608, October.
  3. Kaushik Amin & Joshua D. Coval & H. Nejat Seyhun, 2004. "Index Option Prices and Stock Market Momentum," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(4), pages 835-874, October.
  4. Mark Broadie & Mikhail Chernov & Michael Johannes, 2007. "Model Specification and Risk Premia: Evidence from Futures Options," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(3), pages 1453-1490, 06.
  5. Pan, Jun, 2002. "The jump-risk premia implicit in options: evidence from an integrated time-series study," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 3-50, January.
  6. Jens Carsten Jackwerth, 1998. "Recovering Risk Aversion from Option Prices and Realized Returns," Finance 9803002, EconWPA.
  7. John H. Cochrane & Jesús Saá-Requejo, 1998. "Beyond Arbitrage: "Good-Deal" Asset Price Bounds in Incomplete Markets," CRSP working papers 430, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
  8. Andrei Shleifer ad Robert W. Vishny, 1995. "The Limits of Arbitrage," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1725, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  9. Figlewski, Stephen, 1989. " Options Arbitrage in Imperfect Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(5), pages 1289-1311, December.
  10. Bates, David S., 2000. "Post-'87 crash fears in the S&P 500 futures option market," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 181-238.
  11. Allen M. Poteshman, 2001. "Underreaction, Overreaction, and Increasing Misreaction to Information in the Options Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(3), pages 851-876, 06.
  12. Longstaff, Francis A, 1995. "Option Pricing and the Martingale Restriction," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 8(4), pages 1091-1124.
  13. Constantinides, George M. & Perrakis, Stylianos, 2002. "Stochastic dominance bounds on derivatives prices in a multiperiod economy with proportional transaction costs," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 1323-1352, July.
  14. Nicolas P. B. Bollen & Robert E. Whaley, 2004. "Does Net Buying Pressure Affect the Shape of Implied Volatility Functions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 711-753, 04.
  15. Gurdip Bakshi & Nikunj Kapadia & Dilip Madan, 2003. "Stock Return Characteristics, Skew Laws, and the Differential Pricing of Individual Equity Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 101-143.
  16. Hakansson, Nils H., 1979. "The Fantastic World of Finance: Progress and the Free Lunch," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(04), pages 717-734, November.
  17. Greenwood, Robin, 2005. "Short- and long-term demand curves for stocks: theory and evidence on the dynamics of arbitrage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(3), pages 607-649, March.
  18. Xavier Gabaix & Arvind Krishnamurthy & Olivier Vigneron, 2005. "Limits of Arbitrage: Theory and Evidence from the Mortgage-Backed Securities Market," NBER Working Papers 11851, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Stein, Jeremy, 1989. " Overreactions in the Options Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 1011-23, September.
  20. Brennan, M J, 1979. "The Pricing of Contingent Claims in Discrete Time Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 53-68, March.
  21. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
  22. Joshua D. Coval, 2001. "Expected Option Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(3), pages 983-1009, 06.
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