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Finite-Sample Diagnostics for Multivariate Regressions with Applications to Linear Asset Pricing Models

  • Jean-Marie Dufour
  • Lynda Khalaf
  • Marie-Claude Beaulieu

In this paper, we propose several finite-sample specification tests for multivariate linear regressions (MLR) with applications to asset pricing models. We focus on departures from the assumption of i.i.d. errors assumption, at univariate and multivariate levels, with Gaussian and non-Gaussian (including Student t) errors. The univariate tests studied extend existing exact procedures by allowing for unspecified parameters in the error distributions (e.g., the degrees of freedom in the case of the Student t distribution). The multivariate tests are based on properly standardized multivariate residuals to ensure invariance to MLR coefficients and error covariances. We consider tests for serial correlation, tests for multivariate GARCH and sign-type tests against general dependencies and asymmetries. The procedures proposed provide exact versions of those applied in Shanken (1990) which consist in combining univariate specification tests. Specifically, we combine tests across equations using the MC test procedure to avoid Bonferroni-type bounds. Since non-Gaussian based tests are not pivotal, we apply the "maximized MC"" (MMC) test method [Dufour (2002)], where the MC p-value for the tested hypothesis (which depends on nuisance parameters) is maximized (with respect to these nuisance parameters) to control the tests significance level. The tests proposed are applied to an asset pricing model with observable risk-free rates, using monthly returns on New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) portfolios over five-year subperiods from 1926-1995. Our empirical results reveal the following. Whereas univariate exact tests indicate significant serial correlation, asymmetries and GARCH in some equations, such effects are much less prevalent once error crossequation covariances are accounted for. In addition, significant departures from the i.i.d. hypothesis are less evident once we allow for non-Gaussian errors." Dans cet article, nous proposons plusieurs tests de spécification valides pour des échantillons finis dans le cadre de régression linéaires multivariées (RLM), avec des applications à des modèles d'évaluation d'actifs. Nous nous concentrons sur les déviations par rapport à l'hypothèse d'erreurs i.i.d. univariée ou multivariée, pour des distributions d'erreurs gaussiennes et non gaussiennes. Les tests univariés étudiés prolongent les procédures exactes existantes en permettant des paramètres non spécifiés dans la distribution des erreurs (e.g., le nombre de degrés de liberté dans le cas de la distribution de Student). Les tests multivariés sont basés sur des résidus standardisés multivariés qui assurent l'invariance par rapport aux coefficients RLM et à ceux de la matrice de covariance des erreurs. Nous considérons des tests contre la dépendance sérielle, contre la présence d'effets GARCH multivariés et des tests de signes contre l'asymétrie. Les procédures proposées sont des versions exactes des tests de Shanken (1990) qui consistent à combiner des tests de spécification univariés. Spécifiquement, nous combinons des tests entre équations en utilisant une approche de test de Monte Carlo (MC), ce qui permet d'éviter des bornes de type Bonferroni. Étant donné que les tests dans un contexte non gaussien ne sont pas pivotaux, nous appliquons une approche de test de Monte Carlo maximisé [Dufour (2002)] où la valeur p simulée pour l'hypothèse testée (qui dépend de paramètres de nuisance) est maximisée (par rapport aux dits paramètres de nuisance) dans le but de contrôler le niveau des tests. Nous appliquons les tests proposés à un modèle d'évaluation d'actifs qui comprend un taux d'intérêt sans risque observable et utilise les rendements de portefeuilles mensuels de titres inscrits à la bourse de New York, sur des sous-périodes de cinq ans allant de janvier 1926 à décembre 1995. Nos résultats révèlent que les tests univariés exacts présentent des problèmes de dépendance sérielle, d'asymétrie et d'effets GARCH statistiquement significatifs dans certaines équations. Cependant ces problèmes s'avèrent moins importants, lorsque l'on tient compte de la dépendance entre équations. De plus, les écarts importants par rapport à l'hypothèse i.i.d. sont moins évidents une fois que l'on considère des erreurs non gaussiennes.

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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2003s-34.

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Length: 36 pages
Date of creation: 01 Apr 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2003s-34
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  1. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Khalaf, Lynda & Bernard, Jean-Thomas & Genest, Ian, 2004. "Simulation-based finite-sample tests for heteroskedasticity and ARCH effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 317-347, October.
  2. Jean-Marie Dufour & Lynda Khalaf & Marie-Claude Beaulieu, 2003. "Exact skewness-kurtosis tests for multivariate normality and goodness-of-fit in multivariate regressions with application to asset pricing models," CIRANO Working Papers 2003s-33, CIRANO.
  3. Chou, Pin-Huang, 2000. "Alternative Tests of the Zero-Beta CAPM," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 469-93, Winter.
  4. Jobson, J. D. & Korkie, Bob, 1982. "Potential performance and tests of portfolio efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 433-466, December.
  5. Richardson, Matthew & Smith, Tom, 1993. "A Test for Multivariate Normality in Stock Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66(2), pages 295-321, April.
  6. Shanken, Jay, 1986. " Testing Portfolio Efficiency When the Zero-Beta Rate Is Unknown: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 269-76, March.
  7. Affleck-Graves, John & McDonald, Bill, 1989. " Nonnormalities and Tests of Asset Pricing Theories," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 889-908, September.
  8. Kroner, Kenneth F & Ng, Victor K, 1998. "Modeling Asymmetric Comovements of Asset Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 817-44.
  9. Lee, John H. H., 1991. "A Lagrange multiplier test for GARCH models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 265-271, November.
  10. Dufour, J.M. & Kiviet, J.F., 1995. "Exact Inference Methods for First-Order Autoregressive Distributed Lag Models," Cahiers de recherche 9547, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  11. Andrew W. Lo & A. Craig MacKinlay, 1987. "Stock Market Prices Do Not Follow Random Walks: Evidence From a Simple Specification Test," NBER Working Papers 2168, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Jean-Marie Dufour & Abdeljelil Farhat & Lucien Gardiol & Lynda Khalaf, 1998. "Simulation-based finite sample normality tests in linear regressions," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 1(Conferenc), pages C154-C173.
  13. Jean-Marie Dufour & Lynda Khalaf, 2000. "Exact Tests for Contemporaneous Correlation of Disturbances in Seemingly Unrelated Regressions," CIRANO Working Papers 2000s-16, CIRANO.
  14. Philippe J. Deschamps, 1996. "Monte Carlo Methodology for LM and LR Autocorrelation Tests in Multivariate Regression," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 43, pages 149-169.
  15. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
  16. Raymond Kan & Guofu Zhou, 2012. "Tests of Mean-Variance Spanning," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 13(1), pages 139-187, May.
  17. Dufour, J.-M., 1986. "Exact tests and confidence sets in linear regressions with autocorrelated errors," CORE Discussion Papers 1986037, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  18. Zhou, Guofu, 1991. "Small sample tests of portfolio efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 165-191, November.
  19. Gibbons, Michael R & Ross, Stephen A & Shanken, Jay, 1989. "A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1121-52, September.
  20. Dufour, J.M. & Khalaf, L., 2000. "Simulation-Based Finite and Large Sample Tests in Multivariate Regressions," Cahiers de recherche 2000-10, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  21. Kenneth Stewart, 1997. "Exact testing in multivariate regression," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 321-352.
  22. DUFOUR, Jean-Marie, 2005. "Monte Carlo Tests with Nuisance Parameters: A General Approach to Finite-Sample Inference and Nonstandard Asymptotics," Cahiers de recherche 2005-03, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  23. Zhou, Guofu, 1995. "Small sample rank tests with applications to asset pricing," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 71-93, March.
  24. Engle, Robert F. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1995. "Multivariate Simultaneous Generalized ARCH," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(01), pages 122-150, February.
  25. Gibbons, Michael R., 1982. "Multivariate tests of financial models : A new approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 3-27, March.
  26. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1995. " Size and Book-to-Market Factors in Earnings and Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 131-55, March.
  27. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
  28. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Kiviet, Jan F., 1996. "Exact tests for structural change in first-order dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 39-68, January.
  29. Harvey, Andrew C & Phillips, Garry D A, 1982. "Testing for Contemporaneous Correlation of Disturbances in Systems of Regression Equations," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 79-91, November.
  30. repec:cup:etheor:v:11:y:1995:i:1:p:122-50 is not listed on IDEAS
  31. Shanken, Jay, 1990. "Intertemporal asset pricing : An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 99-120.
  32. Godfrey, Leslie G., 1996. "Some results on the Glejser and Koenker tests for heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 275-299.
  33. Jobson, J. D. & Korkie, Bob, 1989. "A Performance Interpretation of Multivariate Tests of Asset Set Intersection, Spanning, and Mean-Variance Efficiency," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(02), pages 185-204, June.
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