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Spanish Unemployment Persistence and the Ladder Effect

  • Fabrice Collard
  • Raquel Fonseca
  • Rafael Munoz

This paper aims to examine unemployment persistence in Spain by the soûcalled 'ladder' effect. This arises when highly-skilled workers who do not find a job matching their skills accept jobs which previously were occupied by less qualified staff. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model, in which two types of workers ù characterised by their level of formal education ù coexist on the labour market. Highly educated workers are then assumed to compete with lowûskilled workers, generating a ladder eñect. The model is then calibrated on the Spanish economy. Our results replicate the observed decline in the ratio of high to lowûskilled vacancies, and explains how firms substitute high for lowûskilled employment. The results also suggest that the Spanish ladder effect may reflect increases in the training costs as a result of a biased-shock against low-skilled workers.

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Paper provided by Centre for Economic Performance, LSE in its series CEP Discussion Papers with number dp0538.

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Date of creation: Jul 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp0538
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/series.asp?prog=CEP

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  2. Juan José Dolado & Carlos García-Serrano & Juan F. Jimeno, . "Drawing Lessons from the Boom of Temporary Jobs in Spain," Working Papers 2001-11, FEDEA.
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  7. Paul Krugman, 1994. "Past and prospective causes of high unemployment," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 23-43.
  8. F Green & Steven McIntosh & Anna Vignoles, 1999. "Overeducation and Skills - Clarifying the Concepts," CEP Discussion Papers dp0435, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  9. Luis A. Puch & Omar Licandro, 1997. "Are there any special features in the Spanish business cycle?," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 21(2), pages 361-394, May.
  10. Andolfatto, David, 1996. "Business Cycles and Labor-Market Search," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 112-32, March.
  11. Pieter A. Gautier, 1999. "Unemployment and Search Externalities in a Model with Heterogeneous Jobs and Heterogeneous Workers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-075/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  12. repec:dgr:uvatin:1999075 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. DREZE, Jacques H. & SNEESSENS, Henri, 1994. "Technical Development, Competition from Low-Wage Economies and Low-Skilled Unemployment," CORE Discussion Papers 1994036, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  14. Philippe Michel & Pierre Granier, 1994. "Les conflits d'intérêt entre travailleurs qualifiés et travailleurs non qualifiés," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 115(4), pages 125-139.
  15. Boucekkine, Raouf, 1995. "An alternative methodology for solving nonlinear forward-looking models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 711-734, May.
  16. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-142162 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Nickell, Stephen & Bell, Brian, 1995. "The Collapse in Demand for the Unskilled and Unemployment across the OECD," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 40-62, Spring.
  18. van Ours, J.C. & Ridder, G., 1995. "Job Matching and Job Competition : Are Lower Educated Workers at the Back of Job Queues?," Other publications TiSEM 2b08ab23-16f0-4f9a-9bdd-7, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
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