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Spanish Unemployment Persistence and the Ladder Effect

Author

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  • Fabrice Collard
  • Raquel Fonseca
  • Rafael Munoz

Abstract

This paper aims to examine unemployment persistence in Spain by the soûcalled 'ladder' effect. This arises when highly-skilled workers who do not find a job matching their skills accept jobs which previously were occupied by less qualified staff. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model, in which two types of workers ù characterised by their level of formal education ù coexist on the labour market. Highly educated workers are then assumed to compete with lowûskilled workers, generating a ladder eñect. The model is then calibrated on the Spanish economy. Our results replicate the observed decline in the ratio of high to lowûskilled vacancies, and explains how firms substitute high for lowûskilled employment. The results also suggest that the Spanish ladder effect may reflect increases in the training costs as a result of a biased-shock against low-skilled workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabrice Collard & Raquel Fonseca & Rafael Munoz, 2002. "Spanish Unemployment Persistence and the Ladder Effect," CEP Discussion Papers dp0538, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp0538
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Paul R. Krugman, 1994. "Past and prospective causes of high unemployment," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 23-43.
    2. van Ours, J. C. & Ridder, G., 1995. "Job matching and job competition: Are lower educated workers at the back of job queues?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1717-1731, December.
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    4. Dolado, Juan J. & Felgueroso, Florentino & Jimeno, Juan F., 2000. "Youth labour markets in Spain: Education, training, and crowding-out," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(4-6), pages 943-956, May.
    5. Luis A. Puch & Omar Licandro, 1997. "Are there any special features in the Spanish business cycle?," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 21(2), pages 361-394, May.
    6. F Green & Steven McIntosh & Anna Vignoles, 1999. "Overeducation and Skills - Clarifying the Concepts," CEP Discussion Papers dp0435, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    7. Andolfatto, David, 1996. "Business Cycles and Labor-Market Search," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 112-132, March.
    8. DREZE, Jacques H. & SNEESSENS, Henri, 1994. "Technical Development, Competition from Low-Wage Economies and Low-Skilled Unemployment," CORE Discussion Papers 1994036, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    9. Ezequiel Uriel Jiménez & Pilar Beneito López & Javier Ferri Carreres & María Luisa Moltó Carbonell, 1996. "Desajuste educativo y formación laboral especializada: efectos sobre los rendimientos salariales," Working Papers. Serie EC 1996-11, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    10. Nickell, Stephen & Bell, Brian, 1995. "The Collapse in Demand for the Unskilled and Unemployment across the OECD," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 40-62, Spring.
    11. Pierre Granier & Philippe Michel, 1994. "Les conflits d'intérêt entre travailleurs qualifiés et travailleurs non qualifiés," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 115(4), pages 125-139.
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    Cited by:

    1. Clemente Pignatti Morano, 2014. "The determinants of overeducation: Evidence from the Italian labour market," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 9,in: Adela García Aracil & Isabel Neira Gómez (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 9, edition 1, volume 9, chapter 35, pages 681-698 Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    2. Sergio Destefanis & Raquel Fonseca, 2007. "Matching Efficiency and Labour Market Reform in Italy: A Macroeconometric Assessment," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 21(1), pages 57-84, March.
    3. Sergio Destefanis & Raquel Fonseca, 2006. "Labour-Market Reforms and the Beveridge Curve. Some Macro Evidence for Italy," CSEF Working Papers 168, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    4. Olivier, Pierrard & Henri R., Sneessens, 2002. "Low-Skilled Unemployment, Biased Technological Shocks and Job Competition," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2003014, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 03 May 2002.
    5. E. Moreno-Galbis & Henri Sneessens, 2007. "Low-skilled unemployment, capital-skill complementarity and embodied technical progress," Recherches économiques de Louvain, De Boeck Université, vol. 73(3), pages 241-272.
    6. Eva, MORENO-GALBIS, 2004. "Unemployment and Endogenous Growth with Capital-Skill Complementarity," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2004001, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Matching models; low-skilled unemployment; mismatch;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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