Industrial Concentration of Ethnic Minority- and Women-Owned Businesses in the United States
The number of ethnic minority and women-owned businesses has increased rapidly during the past few decades. However, the characteristics of these businesses and their owners differ by race, ethnicity, and gender. Using a confidential national survey of ethnic minority and women-owned businesses in the United States, this study examines ethnic minority- and women-owned businesses segmented by industrial sectors. Consistent with gender occupational segregation, male- and female- owned businesses have distinctive sectoral concentration patterns, with ethnic minority women- owned businesses highly concentrated in a limited number of industrial sectors. However, the relationship between business sectoral concentration and business performance is not uniform across ethnic and gender groups. Concentration in specific industrial sectors does not necessarily mean poor performance when measured by sales, size of employment or payrolls. However, for women-owned businesses, those sectors obviously pay less and have marginal profits, especially if considering the size of the firms.
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- Susan Hanson & Megan Blake, 2009. "Gender and Entrepreneurial Networks," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(1), pages 135-149.
- Maria Minniti & Carlo Nardone, 2007. "Being in Someone Else’s Shoes: the Role of Gender in Nascent Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 223-238, March.
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- Megan K Blake & Susan Hanson, 2005. "Rethinking innovation: context and gender," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 37(4), pages 681-701, April.
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