IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Do Transportation and Communications Tend to Be Substitutes, Complements, or Neither? U.S. Consumer Expenditures Perspective, 1984-2002


  • Choo, Sangho
  • Lee, Taihyeong
  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L


With aggregate data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey for 19 years, 1984 through 2002, this study analyzes relationships between expenditures on transportation and communications. Several classification schemes for expenditure categories were used, from the most aggregate [two categories (transportation and communications)] to the most disaggregate [nine transportation categories (new vehicle purchases, used vehicle purchases, vehicle finance charges, gasoline and motor oil, vehicle maintenance and repairs, vehicle insurance, public transportation, out-of-town lodging, and other entertainment including bikes and recreational vehicles) and five communications categories (telephone service; miscellaneous household equipment including phones and computers; television, radio, and sound equipment; postage and stationery; and reading)]. Aggregate demand system modeling (in particular, the linear approximate almost ideal demand system) was then used to determine the relationships between expenditures on transportation and those on communications, again for several different classifications. The model results indicate that transportation and communications categories have substitution and complementarity relationships, often not symmetric. However, a dominant effect of complementarity can be found in the influence of communications on transportation.

Suggested Citation

  • Choo, Sangho & Lee, Taihyeong & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 2008. "Do Transportation and Communications Tend to Be Substitutes, Complements, or Neither? U.S. Consumer Expenditures Perspective, 1984-2002," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt7n9680qh, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt7n9680qh

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lee, Taihyeong & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2004. "An Input-Output Analysis of the Relationships Between Communications and Travel for Industry," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt55x4h2r2, University of California Transportation Center.
    2. Choo, Sangho & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2007. "Telecommunications and travel demand and supply: Aggregate structural equation models for the US," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 4-18, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Zhou, Yiwei & Wang, Xiaokun (Cara), 2014. "Explore the relationship between online shopping and shopping trips: An analysis with the 2009 NHTS data," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1-9.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt7n9680qh. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.