The Scarcity of Effective Monitors and Its Implications For Corporate Takeovers and Ownership Structures
Agency problems in firms are prevalent because effective corporate monitors are scarce. This paper presents a model that formalizes the scarcity of effective monitors and explores its implications for corporate monitoring mechanisms and ownership structures. We call the most effective monitors - wealthy investors with corporate governance ability â€“ â€œrestructuring specialistsâ€ . Their special monitoring ability is a scarce resource in the economy. These restructuring specialists are more effective monitors than coalitions of many small investors run by managers, which face their own agency problems that make them less effective at monitoring. The restructuring specialists have an incentive to acquire blocks for restructuring purposes only in those states of the world in which a restructuring increases firm value the most. This corresponds to a takeover. The restructuring specialistsâ€™ investment strategy is an important determinant of corporate ownership structures. Initially dispersed ownership can be optimal only if sufficient liquidity trading allows these special monitors to benefit from state-contingent block acquisitions. The extent of dispersed ownership also depends on the degree of monitoring superiority of the restructuring specialists and the capital available to them, as well as the likelihood that a restructuring may be needed. Firms with initially dispersed ownership and with a financial intermediary as a blockholder can coexist although they are otherwise identical. The model can explain several observations concerning ownership structures and monitoring mechanisms in different developed economies.
|Date of creation:||07 Jul 2001|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 110 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA. 90095|
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/anderson_fin/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Prowse, Stephen D, 1992. " The Structure of Corporate Ownership in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1121-40, July.
- Hotchkiss, Edith S. & Mooradian, Robert M., 1997. "Vulture investors and the market for control of distressed firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 401-432, March.
- Woidtke, Tracie, 2002. "Agents watching agents?: evidence from pension fund ownership and firm value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 99-131, January.
- Smith, Abbie J., 1990. "Corporate ownership structure and performance *1: The case of management buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 143-164, September.
- Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1989. "Management entrenchment : The case of manager-specific investments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 123-139, November.
- Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-77, December.
- Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1986.
"Large Shareholders and Corporate Control,"
3606237, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
- Kaplan, Steven N. & Minton, Bernadette A., 1994. "Appointments of outsiders to Japanese boards: Determinants and implications for managers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 225-258, October.
- Judd, Kenneth L., 1985. "The law of large numbers with a continuum of IID random variables," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 19-25, February.
- Kaplan, Steven, 1989. "The effects of management buyouts on operating performance and value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 217-254.
- Jeffrey Zwiebel, 1995. "Block Investment and Partial Benefits of Corporate Control," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(2), pages 161-185.
- Gillan, Stuart L. & Starks, Laura T., 2000. "Corporate governance proposals and shareholder activism: the role of institutional investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 275-305, August.
- Jennifer E. Bethel & Julia Porter Liebeskind & Tim Opler, 1998. "Block Share Purchases and Corporate Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 605-634, 04.
- Feldman, Mark & Gilles, Christian, 1985. "An expository note on individual risk without aggregate uncertainty," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 26-32, February.
- Yafeh, Yishay & Yosha, Oved, 1995. "Large Shareholders and Banks: Who Monitors and How?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1178, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
- Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Malatesta, Paul H. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1996. "Corporate governance and shareholder initiatives: Empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 365-395, November.
- Kang, Jun-Koo & Shivdasani, Anil, 1997. "Corporate restructuring during performance declines in Japan," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 29-65, October.
- Ernst Maug, 1998. "Large Shareholders as Monitors: Is There a Trade-Off between Liquidity and Control?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 65-98, 02.
- Albert S. Kyle & Jean-Luc Vila, 1991. "Noise Trading and Takeovers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(1), pages 54-71, Spring.
- Yafeh, Y. & Yosha, O., 1995. "Large Shareholders and Banks: Who Monitors and How," Papers 04-95, Tel Aviv.
- Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 1985. "Raiders or saviors? The evidence on six controversial investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 555-555, December.
- Roe, Mark J., 1990. "Political and legal restraints on ownership and control of public companies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 7-41, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:anderf:qt2tj5w4mt. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.