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Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol

Author

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  • Shapouri, Hosein
  • Duffield, James A.
  • Graboski, Michael S.

Abstract

Studies conducted since the late 1970's have estimated the net energy value of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the net energy value of corn ethanol has become positive in recent years due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy ratio of 1.24.

Suggested Citation

  • Shapouri, Hosein & Duffield, James A. & Graboski, Michael S., 1995. "Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol," Agricultural Economics Reports 34005, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:uerser:34005
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34005
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dovring, Folke & McDowell, Donald R., 1980. "Energy Used for Fertilizers," Illinois Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 243896, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics.
    2. Marland, G. & Turhollow, A.F., 1991. "CO2 emissions from the production and combustion of fuel ethanol from corn," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 16(11), pages 1307-1316.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dahlgran, Roger A., 2009. "Inventory and Transformation Hedging Effectiveness in Corn Crushing," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 34(1), April.
    2. R. Lal, 2007. "Carbon Management in Agricultural Soils," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 303-322, February.
    3. Hettinga, W.G. & Junginger, H.M. & Dekker, S.C. & Hoogwijk, M. & McAloon, A.J. & Hicks, K.B., 2009. "Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: An experience curve approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 190-203, January.
    4. Rausch, Kent D. & Belyea, Ronald L. & Singh, Vijay & Tumbleson, M.E., 2007. "Corn processing coproducts from ethanol production," Biofuels, Food and Feed Tradeoffs, Biofuels, Food and Feed Tradeoffs Conference, April 12-13, 2007, St, Louis, Missouri 48775, Farm Foundation.
    5. Naderloo, Leila & Javadikia, Hossein & Mostafaei, Mostafa, 2017. "Modeling the energy ratio and productivity of biodiesel with different reactor dimensions and ultrasonic power using ANFIS," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 56-64.
    6. Malça, João & Freire, Fausto, 2006. "Renewability and life-cycle energy efficiency of bioethanol and bio-ethyl tertiary butyl ether (bioETBE): Assessing the implications of allocation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(15), pages 3362-3380.
    7. Sobrino, Fernando Hernández & Monroy, Carlos Rodríguez & Pérez, José Luís Hernández, 2010. "Critical analysis on hydrogen as an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles in Europe," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 772-780, February.
    8. Lavigne, Amanda & Powers, Susan E., 2007. "Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5918-5930, November.
    9. Tembo, Gelson & Epplin, Francis M. & Huhnke, Raymond L., 2003. "Integrative Investment Appraisal of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Industry," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(03), December.
    10. Brito, Dagobert & Rosellon, Juan, 2005. "The Political Economy of Solar Energy," MPRA Paper 22420, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Mitra, Subhro & Dybing, Alan & Tolliver, Denver, 2011. "Impacts of ethanol plants on highway networks," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 4(1), pages 71-81.
    12. Naik, S.N. & Goud, Vaibhav V. & Rout, Prasant K. & Dalai, Ajay K., 2010. "Production of first and second generation biofuels: A comprehensive review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 578-597, February.
    13. Sourie, Jean-Claude & Treguer, David & Rozakis, Stelios, 2006. "Economic impact of biofuel chains in France," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21184, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    14. Petrolia, Daniel R. & Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy & Hudson, Darren & Herndon, Cary W., 2010. "Do Americans want ethanol? A comparative contingent-valuation study of willingness to pay for E-10 and E-85," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 121-128, January.
    15. Mack, J. Hunter & Aceves, Salvador M. & Dibble, Robert W., 2009. "Demonstrating direct use of wet ethanol in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 782-787.
    16. Liu, Jin’e & Lin, Bin-Le & Sagisaka, Masayuki, 2012. "Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 23-33.
    17. Charles, Michael B. & Ryan, Rachel & Ryan, Neal & Oloruntoba, Richard, 2007. "Public policy and biofuels: The way forward?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5737-5746, November.
    18. Baker, Mindy L. & Hayes, Dermot J. & Babcock, Bruce A., 2008. "Crop-Based Biofuel Production under Acreage Constraints and Uncertainty," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6352, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    19. Eaves, James & Eaves, Stephen, 2007. "Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5958-5963, November.
    20. Bureau, Jean-Christophe & Disdier, Anne-Célia & Gauroy, Christine & Tréguer, David, 2010. "A quantitative assessment of the determinants of the net energy value of biofuels," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2282-2290, May.
    21. Mindy L. Mallory & Dermot J. Hayes & Bruce A. Babcock, 2011. "Crop-Based Biofuel Production with Acreage Competition and Uncertainty," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 87(4), pages 610-627.
    22. Felix, Erika & Tilley, David R., 2009. "Integrated energy, environmental and financial analysis of ethanol production from cellulosic switchgrass," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 410-436.
    23. Saxena, Samveg & Schneider, Silvan & Aceves, Salvador & Dibble, Robert, 2012. "Wet ethanol in HCCI engines with exhaust heat recovery to improve the energy balance of ethanol fuels," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 448-457.
    24. Szulczyk, Kenneth R. & McCarl, Bruce A. & Cornforth, Gerald, 2010. "Market penetration of ethanol," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 394-403, January.
    25. Liu, Jin & Wu, Jianguo & Liu, Fengqiao & Han, Xingguo, 2012. "Quantitative assessment of bioenergy from crop stalk resources in Inner Mongolia, China," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 305-318.

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