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Climate Change and Migration : Evidence from the Middle East and North Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Quentin Wodon
  • Andrea Liverani
  • George Joseph
  • Nathalie Bougnoux

Abstract

Climate change is a major source of concern in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and migration is often understood as one of several strategies used by households to respond to changes in climate and environmental conditions, including extreme weather events. This study focuses on the link between climate change and migration. Most micro-level studies measure climate change either by the incidences of extreme weather events or by variation in temperature or rainfall. A few studies have found that formal and informal institutions as well as policies also affect migration. Institutions that make government more responsive to households (for example through public spending) discourage both international and domestic migration in the aftermath of extreme weather events. Migration is often an option of last resort after vulnerable rural populations attempting to cope with new and challenging circumstances have exhausted other options such as eating less, selling assets, or removing children from school. This study is based in large part on new data collected in 2011 in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Syria, and the Republic of Yemen. The surveys were administered by in-country partners to a randomly selected set of 800 households per country. It is also important to emphasize that neither the household survey results nor the findings from the qualitative focus groups are meant to be representative of the five countries in which the work was carried, since only a few areas were surveyed in each country. This report is organized as follows: section one gives synthesis. Section two discusses household perceptions about climate change and extreme weather events. Section three focuses on migration as a coping mechanisms and income diversification strategy. Section four examines other coping and adaptation strategies. Section five discusses perceptions about government and community programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Quentin Wodon & Andrea Liverani & George Joseph & Nathalie Bougnoux, 2014. "Climate Change and Migration : Evidence from the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 18929, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:18929
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Adoho, Franck & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Do Changes in Weather Patterns and the Environment Lead to Migration in the MENA Region?," MPRA Paper 56935, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Cong Nguyen, Minh & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Weather Shocks, Impact on Households, and Ability to Recover in Morocco," MPRA Paper 56932, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Joseph, George & Wodon, Quentin & Liverani, Andrea & Blankespoor, Brian, 2014. "Is Climate Change Likely to Lead to Higher Net Internal Migration? The Republic of Yemen’s Case," MPRA Paper 56937, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Adel Ben Youssef & Mohamed Arouri & Cuong Viet Nguyen, 2017. "Is Internal Migration A Way to Cope With Climate Change? Evidence From Egypt," Working Papers 1099, Economic Research Forum, revised 05 2017.
    5. Ademmer, Esther & Akgüç, Mehtap & Barslund, Mikkel & Di Bartolomeo, Anna & Benček, David & Groll, Dominik & Hoxhaj, Rezart & Lanati, Mauro & Laurentsyeva, Nadzeya & Lücke, Matthias & Ludolph, Lars & R, 2017. "2017 MEDAM Assessment Report on Asylum and Migration Policies in Europe. Sharing responsibility for refugees and expanding legal immigration," MEDAM Assessment Report on Asylum and Migration Policies in Europe, Mercator Dialogue on Asylum and Migration (MEDAM), number 182239, April.
    6. Abdallh, Atif Awad & Abugamos, Hoda, 2017. "A semi-parametric panel data analysis on the urbanisation-carbon emissions nexus for the MENA countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 1350-1356.
    7. Clarence Tsimpo & Quentin Wodon, 2016. "Faith Affiliation, Religiosity, and Attitudes Towards the Environment and Climate Change," The Review of Faith & International Affairs, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 51-64, July.
    8. O. Bessaoud & A. Sadiddin, 2019. "Développement rural et migrations : une dimension environnementale," Post-Print hal-02137633, HAL.
    9. Cong Nguyen, Minh & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Extreme Weather Events and Migration: The Case of Morocco," MPRA Paper 56938, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Stéphane Hallegatte & Adrien Vogt-Schilb & Julie Rozenberg & Mook Bangalore & Chloé Beaudet, 2020. "From Poverty to Disaster and Back: a Review of the Literature," Economics of Disasters and Climate Change, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 223-247, April.
    11. Narloch, Ulf & Bangalore, Mook, 2018. "The multifaceted relationship between environmental risks and poverty: new insights from Vietnam," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 87553, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Grant, Audra & Burger, Nicholas & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Climate-induced Migration in the MENA Region: Results from the Qualitative Fieldwork," MPRA Paper 56936, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Valentina Bosetti & Cristina Cattaneo & Giovanni Peri, 2018. "Should they stay or should they go? Climate Migrants and Local Conflicts," NBER Working Papers 24447, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Adoho, Franck & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Perceptions of Climate Change, Weather Shocks, and Impacts on Households in the MENA region," MPRA Paper 56931, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Marion Borderon & Patrick Sakdapolrak & Raya Muttarak & Endale Kebede & Raffaella Pagogna & Eva Sporer, 2019. "Migration influenced by environmental change in Africa: A systematic review of empirical evidence," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 41(18), pages 491-544.
    16. S. Nazrul Islam & John Winkel, 2017. "Climate Change and Social Inequality," Working Papers 152, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    17. Wodon, Quentin & Liverani, Andrea, 2014. "Climate Change and Migration in the MENA Region: An Overview," MPRA Paper 56926, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Adoho, Franck & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "How Do Households Cope with and Adapt to Climate Change in the MENA Region?," MPRA Paper 56934, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Quentin Wodon & Andrea Liverani, 2014. "Climate Change and Migration in the MENA Region," World Bank Other Operational Studies 22594, The World Bank.
    20. Wodon, Quentin & Burger, Nicholas & Grant, Audra & Liverani, Andrea, 2014. "Climate Change, Migration, and Adaptation in the MENA Region," MPRA Paper 56927, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Muhammad Azam & Syed Ali Raza, 2016. "Do Workers’ Remittances Boost Human Capital Development?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 55(2), pages 123-149.

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