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Climate Change and Migration : Evidence from the Middle East and North Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Quentin Wodon
  • Andrea Liverani
  • George Joseph
  • Nathalie Bougnoux

Abstract

Climate change is a major source of concern in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and migration is often understood as one of several strategies used by households to respond to changes in climate and environmental conditions, including extreme weather events. This study focuses on the link between climate change and migration. Most micro-level studies measure climate change either by the incidences of extreme weather events or by variation in temperature or rainfall. A few studies have found that formal and informal institutions as well as policies also affect migration. Institutions that make government more responsive to households (for example through public spending) discourage both international and domestic migration in the aftermath of extreme weather events. Migration is often an option of last resort after vulnerable rural populations attempting to cope with new and challenging circumstances have exhausted other options such as eating less, selling assets, or removing children from school. This study is based in large part on new data collected in 2011 in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Syria, and the Republic of Yemen. The surveys were administered by in-country partners to a randomly selected set of 800 households per country. It is also important to emphasize that neither the household survey results nor the findings from the qualitative focus groups are meant to be representative of the five countries in which the work was carried, since only a few areas were surveyed in each country. This report is organized as follows: section one gives synthesis. Section two discusses household perceptions about climate change and extreme weather events. Section three focuses on migration as a coping mechanisms and income diversification strategy. Section four examines other coping and adaptation strategies. Section five discusses perceptions about government and community programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Quentin Wodon & Andrea Liverani & George Joseph & Nathalie Bougnoux, 2014. "Climate Change and Migration : Evidence from the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 18929, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:18929
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    File URL: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/18929/893710PUB0978000Box385270B00PUBLIC0.pdf?sequence=1
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Adams, Richard Jr. & Page, John, 2005. "Do international migration and remittances reduce poverty in developing countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1645-1669, October.
    2. Flore Gubert, 2007. "Insurance Against Poverty," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 16(1), pages 172-175, January.
    3. Osili, Una Okonkwo, 2004. "Migrants and Housing Investments: Theory and Evidence from Nigeria," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(4), pages 821-849, July.
    4. Acosta, Pablo & Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lopez, J. Humberto, 2007. "The impact of remittances on poverty and human capital : evidence from Latin American household surveys," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4247, The World Bank.
    5. David J. McKenzie & Nicole Hildebrandt, 2005. "The Effects of Migration on Child Health in Mexico," ECONOMIA JOURNAL, THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION - LACEA, vol. 0(Fall 2005), pages 257-289, August.
    6. World Bank, 2010. "Yemen - Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on the Water and Agricultural Sectors and the Policy Implications," World Bank Other Operational Studies 2943, The World Bank.
    7. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10855 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Taylor, J. Edward & Mora, Jorge, 2006. "Does migration reshape expenditures in rural households? Evidence from Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3842, The World Bank.
    9. Michael Lokshin & Mikhail Bontch-Osmolovski & Elena Glinskaya, 2010. "Work-Related Migration and Poverty Reduction in Nepal," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 323-332, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cong Nguyen, Minh & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Extreme Weather Events and Migration: The Case of Morocco," MPRA Paper 56938, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Adoho, Franck & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Do Changes in Weather Patterns and the Environment Lead to Migration in the MENA Region?," MPRA Paper 56935, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Grant, Audra & Burger, Nicholas & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Climate-induced Migration in the MENA Region: Results from the Qualitative Fieldwork," MPRA Paper 56936, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Adoho, Franck & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Perceptions of Climate Change, Weather Shocks, and Impacts on Households in the MENA region," MPRA Paper 56931, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Wodon, Quentin & Liverani, Andrea, 2014. "Climate Change and Migration in the MENA Region: An Overview," MPRA Paper 56926, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Cong Nguyen, Minh & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "Weather Shocks, Impact on Households, and Ability to Recover in Morocco," MPRA Paper 56932, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Joseph, George & Wodon, Quentin & Liverani, Andrea & Blankespoor, Brian, 2014. "Is Climate Change Likely to Lead to Higher Net Internal Migration? The Republic of Yemen’s Case," MPRA Paper 56937, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Adoho, Franck & Wodon, Quentin, 2014. "How Do Households Cope with and Adapt to Climate Change in the MENA Region?," MPRA Paper 56934, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Quentin Wodon & Andrea Liverani, 2014. "Climate Change and Migration in the MENA Region," World Bank Other Operational Studies 22594, The World Bank.
    10. Adel Ben Youssef & Mohamed Arouri & Cuong Viet Nguyen, 2017. "Is Internal Migration A Way to Cope With Climate Change? Evidence From Egypt," Working Papers 1099, Economic Research Forum, revised 05 2017.
    11. Wodon, Quentin & Burger, Nicholas & Grant, Audra & Liverani, Andrea, 2014. "Climate Change, Migration, and Adaptation in the MENA Region," MPRA Paper 56927, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. repec:eee:rensus:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:1350-1356 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:pid:journl:v:55:y:2016:i:2:p:123-149 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. repec:taf:rfiaxx:v:14:y:2016:i:3:p:51-64 is not listed on IDEAS

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