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Medicaid costs and birth outcomes: The effects of prenatal WIC participation and the use of prenatal care

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  • Barbara Devaney
  • Linda Bilheimer
  • Jennifer Schore

Abstract

This study examines the effects of prenatal WIC participation and the use of prenatal care on Medicaid costs and birth outcomes in five states-Florida, Minnesota, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. The study period is 1987 for Florida, Minnesota, North Carolina, and South Carolina and January-June 1988 for Texas. Prenatal WIC participation was associated with substantial savings in Medicaid costs during the first 60 days after birth, with estimates ranging from $277 in Minnesota to $598 in North Carolina. For every dollar spent on the prenatal WIC program, the associated savings in Medicaid costs during the first 60 days ranged from $1.77 to $3.13 across the five states. Receiving inadequate levels of prenatal care was associated with increases in Medicaid costs ranging from $210 in Florida to $1,184 in Minnesota. Prenatal WIC participation was associated with higher newborn birthweight, while receiving inadequate prenatal care was associated with lower birthweight.

Suggested Citation

  • Barbara Devaney & Linda Bilheimer & Jennifer Schore, 1992. "Medicaid costs and birth outcomes: The effects of prenatal WIC participation and the use of prenatal care," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(4), pages 573-592.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jpamgt:v:11:y:1992:i:4:p:573-592 DOI: 10.2307/3324956
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    Cited by:

    1. Sohn, Heeju, 2017. "Medicaid's lasting impressions: Population health and insurance at birth," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 205-212.
    2. Reichman, Nancy E. & Florio, Maryanne J., 1996. "The effects of enriched prenatal care services on Medicaid birth outcomes in New Jersey," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 455-476, August.
    3. Ted Joyce & Andrew Racine & Cristina Yunzal-Butler, 2008. "Reassessing the WIC effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 277-303.
    4. Barbara Devaney, "undated". "WIC Turns 35: Program Effectiveness and Future Directions (paper)," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 835bb2ec02864ca39029e2934, Mathematica Policy Research.
    5. Joyce, Theodore, 1999. "Impact of augmented prenatal care on birth outcomes of Medicaid recipients in New York City," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 31-67, January.
    6. Jens Ludwig & Matthew Miller, 2005. "Interpreting the WIC debate," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 691-701.
    7. Ted Joyce & Diane Gibson & Silvie Colman, 2004. "The Changing Association Between Prenatal Participation in WIC and Birth Outcomes in New York City," NBER Working Papers 10796, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Leonard, Jonathan & Mas, Alexandre, 2008. "Welfare reform, time limits, and infant health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1551-1566, December.
    9. Lee, Bong Joo & Mackey-Bilaver, Lucy, 2007. "Effects of WIC and Food Stamp Program participation on child outcomes," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 501-517, April.
    10. Laura Tiehen & Alison Jacknowitz, 2008. "Why Wait?: Examining Delayed Wic Participation Among Pregnant Women," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 518-538, October.
    11. L. Kowaleski-Jones & G. J. Duncan, "undated". "Effects of Participation in the WIC Food Assistance Program on Children’s Health and Development: Evidence from NLSY Children," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1207-00, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    12. Swann Christopher A, 2010. "WIC Eligibility and Participation: The Roles of Changing Policies, Economic Conditions, and Demographics," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-37, March.
    13. Ted Joyce & Diane Gibson & Silvie Colman, 2005. "The changing association between prenatal participation in WIC and birth outcomes in New York City," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 661-685.
    14. Marianne P. Bitler & Janet Currie, 2004. "Medicaid at Birth, WIC Take Up, and Children's Outcomes," Working Papers 172, RAND Corporation.
    15. Gundersen, Craig, 2005. "A dynamic analysis of the well-being of WIC recipients and eligible non-recipients," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 99-114, January.
    16. Michael Brien & Christopher Swann, 2001. "Does Participation in Multiple Welfare Programs Improve Birth Outcomes?," JCPR Working Papers 212, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    17. Jiang, Miao & Foster, E. Michael & Gibson-Davis, Christina M., 2010. "The effect of WIC on breastfeeding: A new look at an established relationship," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 264-273, February.
    18. Andrew D. Racine & Cristina Yunzal-Butler, 2007. "Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System," NBER Working Papers 13441, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Lhila, Aparna, 2009. "Does government provision of healthcare explain the relationship between income inequality and low birthweight?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 69(8), pages 1236-1245, October.
    20. Cristina Yunzal-Butler & Theodore J. Joyce & Andrew D. Racine, 2009. "Maternal Smoking and the Timing of WIC Enrollment," NBER Working Papers 14728, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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