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Valuing health‐related quality of life: An EQ‐5D‐5L value set for England


  • Nancy J. Devlin
  • Koonal K. Shah
  • Yan Feng
  • Brendan Mulhern
  • Ben van Hout


A new version of the EQ‐5D, the EQ‐5D‐5L, is available. The aim of this study is to produce a value set to support use of EQ‐5D‐5L data in decision‐making. The study design followed an international research protocol. Randomly selected members of the English general public completed 10 time trade‐off and 7 discrete choice experiment tasks in face‐to‐face interviews. A 20‐parameter hybrid model was used to combine time trade‐off and discrete choice experiment data to generate values for the 3,125 EQ‐5D‐5L health states. Valuation data are available for 996 respondents. Face validity of the data has been demonstrated, with more severe health states generally given lower values. Problems with pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression received the greatest weight. Compared to the existing EQ‐5D‐3L value set, there are considerably fewer “worse than dead” states (5.1%, compared with over one third), and the minimum value is higher. Values range from −0.285 (extreme problems on all dimensions) to 0.950 (for health states 11211 and 21111). Results have important implications for users of the EQ‐5D‐5L both in England and internationally. Quality‐adjusted life year gains from interventions seeking to improve very poor health may be smaller using this value set and may previously have been overestimated.

Suggested Citation

  • Nancy J. Devlin & Koonal K. Shah & Yan Feng & Brendan Mulhern & Ben van Hout, 2018. "Valuing health‐related quality of life: An EQ‐5D‐5L value set for England," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(1), pages 7-22, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:27:y:2018:i:1:p:7-22
    DOI: 10.1002/hec.3564

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Brazier, John & Ratcliffe, Julie & Salomon, Joshua & Tsuchiya, Aki, 2016. "Measuring and Valuing Health Benefits for Economic Evaluation," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780198725923.
    2. Yan Feng & Nancy J. Devlin & Koonal K. Shah & Brendan Mulhern & Ben van Hout, 2018. "New methods for modelling EQ‐5D‐5L value sets: An application to English data," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(1), pages 23-38, January.
    3. Feng Xie & A. Pickard & Paul Krabbe & Dennis Revicki & Rosalie Viney & Nancy Devlin & David Feeny, 2015. "A Checklist for Reporting Valuation Studies of Multi-Attribute Utility-Based Instruments (CREATE)," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 33(8), pages 867-877, August.
    4. Devlin, N. & Appleby, J., 2010. "Getting the Most out of PROMs: Putting Health Outcomes at the Heart of NHS Decision-Making," Monographs, Office of Health Economics, number 000220, November.
    5. Parkin, D. & Devlin, N. & Feng, Y., 2014. "What Determines the Shape of an EQ-5D Index Distribution?," Research Papers 000530, Office of Health Economics.
    6. A. Pickard & Caitlyn Wilke & Hsiang-Wen Lin & Andrew Lloyd, 2007. "Health Utilities Using the EQ-5D in Studies of Cancer," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 365-384, May.
    7. Koonal Shah & Andrew Lloyd & Mark Oppe & Nancy Devlin, 2013. "One-to-one versus group setting for conducting computer-assisted TTO studies: findings from pilot studies in England and the Netherlands," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 14(1), pages 65-73, July.
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    JEL classification:

    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health


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