Education, Variation in Earnings, and Nonmonetary Compensation
The NAS-NRC Twin Offspring data support the proposition that for those with low levels of education, earnings may be an adequate proxy for compensation, whereas the opposite holds for highly educated individuals. The inclusion of variables that control for reasons (monetary or nonmonetary) individuals chose their occupation explains an additional 9 percent of the variation in earnings for those with 16 or more years of education (and lowers the male female wage gap by almost 40 percent) and only an additional 2 percent for those with 15 years or less (no affect on male-female wage gap).
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