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Regional determinants of entrepreneurial start-ups in a developing country

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  • Wim Naudé
  • Thomas Gries
  • Eric Wood
  • Aloe Meintjies

Abstract

In this paper we use data from a developing country, South Africa, to empirically identify the determinants of start-up rates across different sub-national regions and in particular to investigate the role of access to finance on a regional (sub-national) level on start-ups. We find that the most important determinants of start-up rates across South Africa's magisterial districts are profit rates, educational levels, agglomeration as measured by the economic size of a district, and access to formal bank finance. Profits have by far the strongest effect on start-up rates. This, together with the insignificance of unemployment for start-ups, may imply that start-ups in South Africa are mainly opportunity-driven, as opposed to being necessity driven. It is also found that access to formal bank finance matter for regional start-up rates, which is not typical for a developing country and that market-size (agglomerations) is negatively associated with start-up rates in South Africa--an unexpected finding which may imply the existence of ‘congesting' factors such as increased competition, tougher barriers to entry, monopolistic behaviour, and a greater difficulty to be innovative and novel.

Suggested Citation

  • Wim Naudé & Thomas Gries & Eric Wood & Aloe Meintjies, 2008. "Regional determinants of entrepreneurial start-ups in a developing country," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 111-124, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:entreg:v:20:y:2008:i:2:p:111-124 DOI: 10.1080/08985620701631498
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    Cited by:

    1. Hannu Tervo & Hannu Niittykangas, 2011. "Self-employment transitions at older ages in different local labor markets," ERSA conference papers ersa11p764, European Regional Science Association.
    2. Naudé, Wim & Matthee, Marianne, 2012. "Do Export Costs Matter in Determining Whether, When, and How Much African Firms Export?," Working Papers 38, JICA Research Institute.
    3. Naudé, Wim & Amorós, José Ernesto & Cristi, Oscar, 2013. ""Romanticizing Penniless Entrepreneurs?" The Relationship between Start-Ups and Human Wellbeing across Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 7547, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Calá, Carla Daniela, 2014. "Regional issues on firm entry and exit in argentina: core and peripheral regions," Nülan. Deposited Documents 2023, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, Centro de Documentación.
    5. Claudia Alvarez & David Urbano, 2008. "Entorno e Iniciativa Emprendedora: una Perspectiva Institucional," Working Papers 0807, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Dec 2008.
    6. Carla Daniela Calá & Miguel Manjón-Antolín & Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod, 2016. "Regional determinants of firm entry in a developing country," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, pages 259-279.
    7. Jorge, Velilla, 2017. "Feminization of entrepreneurship in developing countries? Evidence from GEM data," MPRA Paper 79997, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Calá, Carla Daniela, 2015. "Firm dynamics in developing countries: a single policy for all regions?," Nülan. Deposited Documents 2650, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, Centro de Documentación.
    9. Stephanié Rossouw & Don J. Webber, 2012. "Sub-national vulnerability and relative location: A case study of South Africa," Working Papers 2012-01, Auckland University of Technology, Department of Economics.
    10. Gries Thomas & Naude Wim, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, Structural Change and a Global Economic Crisis," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, pages 1-43.
    11. Carla Calá & Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod & Miguel Manjón-Antolín, 2015. "The determinants of exit in a developing country: core and peripheral regions," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, pages 927-944.
    12. Naude, Wim & McGillivray, Mark & Rossouw, Stephanie, 2008. "Measuring the Vulnerability of Subnational Regions," WIDER Working Paper Series 054, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    13. Calá, Carla Daniela & Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria & Manjón Antolín, Miguel C., 2015. "The Determinants of Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries," Working Papers 2072/246964, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    14. Calá, Carla Daniela & Manjón Antolín, Miguel C. & Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria, 2014. "The Determinants of Exit in Argentina: Core and Peripheral Regions," Working Papers 2072/225299, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    15. repec:gem:wpaper:1201 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Calá, Carla Daniela, 2018. "Sectorial and regional determinants of firm dynamics in developing countries: evidence for low, medium and high tech manufacturing in Argentina," Nülan. Deposited Documents 2587, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, Centro de Documentación.
    17. repec:kap:sbusec:v:49:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9841-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Calá, Carla Daniela, 2015. "Regional issues on firm entry and exit in Argentina: core and peripheral regions," Nülan. Deposited Documents 2649, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, Centro de Documentación.
    19. Syed Awais Ahmad Tipu, 2012. "What have we learned? Themes from the literature on necessity driven entrepreneurship," World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, pages 70-91.
    20. Modrego, Félix & Berdegué, Julio A., 2015. "A Large-Scale Mapping of Territorial Development Dynamics in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 11-31.
    21. Hannu Tervo, 2014. "Who turns to entrepreneurship later in life? - Push and pull in Finnish rural and urban areas," ERSA conference papers ersa14p236, European Regional Science Association.
    22. Dongxu Wu & Zhongmin Wu, 2015. "Intergenerational links, gender differences, and determinants of self-employment," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 42(3), pages 400-414, August.
    23. Claudia Álvarez & David Urbano & José Amorós, 2014. "GEM research: achievements and challenges," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 445-465, March.
    24. repec:ekd:006356:6689 is not listed on IDEAS

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