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Nonlinear monetary policy reaction functions in large emerging economies: the case of Brazil and China


  • Fredj Jawadi
  • Sushanta Kumar Mallick
  • Ricardo Magalhães Sousa


This article estimates monetary policy rules for two key emerging market economies: Brazil and China. It analyses whether the monetary authority reacts to changes in economic activity, financial markets, monetary conditions, the foreign exchange market and the commodity price. We assess the importance of nonlinearity using a smooth transition regression (STR) model. Using quarterly data over the time period 1990:1 to 2008:4, we find that considerations about the output gap and the real effective exchange rate (in the case of Brazil), and the inflation rate (for China) explain the nonlinear adjustment of the central bank rate. Moreover, the results suggest that central banks pursue a target range for the threshold variable rather than a specific point target. In the case of China, the McCallum rule shows that the GDP growth, the interest rate and the commodity price drive the response of the growth rate of the relevant monetary aggregate.

Suggested Citation

  • Fredj Jawadi & Sushanta Kumar Mallick & Ricardo Magalhães Sousa, 2014. "Nonlinear monetary policy reaction functions in large emerging economies: the case of Brazil and China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(9), pages 973-984, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:46:y:2014:i:9:p:973-984
    DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2013.851774

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Li-gang Liu & Wenlang Zhang, 2007. "A New Keynesian Model for Analysing Monetary Policy in Mainland China," Working Papers 0718, Hong Kong Monetary Authority.
    2. Brisne J. V. Céspedes & Elcyon C. R. Lima & Alexis Maka & Mário J. C. Mendonça, 2005. "Measuring Monetary Policy Stance in Brazil," Discussion Papers 1128, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
    3. Pedro Fachada, 2001. "Inflation Targeting in Brazil: Reviewing Two Years of Monetary Policy 1999/00," Working Papers Series 25, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
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    Cited by:

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    6. Kang, Wensheng & Ratti, Ronald A. & Vespignani, Joaquin L., 2016. "Chinese liquidity increases and the U.S. economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 764-771.
    7. Berisha, Edmond & Gupta, Rangan & Meszaros, John, 2020. "The impact of macroeconomic factors on income inequality: Evidence from the BRICS," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 559-567.
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    9. Christou Christina & Naraidoo Ruthira & Gupta Rangan, 2020. "Conventional and unconventional monetary policy reaction to uncertainty in advanced economies: evidence from quantile regressions," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 24(3), pages 1-17, June.
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    11. Cuneyt Dumrul & Yasemin Dumrul, 2015. "Price-Money Relationship after Infl ation Targeting: Co-integration Test with Structural Breaks for Turkey and Brazil," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(3), pages 701-708.
    12. Edilean Kleber da Silva Bejarano Aragón, 2021. "Specification errors, nonlinearities, and structural breaks in the Central Bank of Brazil’s reaction function," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(3), pages 1221-1243, March.
    13. Lombardi, Domenico & Siklos, Pierre L. & Xie, Xiangyou, 2018. "Monetary policy transmission in systemically important economies and China’s impact," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 61-79.
    14. Kang, Wensheng & Ratti, Ronald A. & Vespignani, Joaquin L., 2014. "Liquidity expansion in China and the U.S. economy," MPRA Paper 59338, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Hyeongwoo Kim & Wen Shi, 2014. "The Determinants of the Benchmark Interest Rates in China: A Discrete Choice Model Approach," Auburn Economics Working Paper Series auwp2014-12, Department of Economics, Auburn University.
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    17. Montes, Gabriel Caldas & Ferreira, Caio Ferrari, 2020. "Does monetary policy credibility mitigate the fear of floating?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 76-87.
    18. Horvath, Jaroslav & Zhong, Jiansheng, 2019. "Unemployment dynamics in emerging countries: Monetary policy and external shocks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 31-49.
    19. Nidhal Mgadmi & Slim Chaouachi & Wajdi Moussa & Azza Bejaoui, 2021. "Does the Tunisian Central Bank follow an augmented nonlinear Taylor rule?," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 1-15, January.
    20. Wei, Xiaoyun & Li, Jie & Han, Liyan, 2020. "Optimal targeted reduction in reserve requirement ratio in China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 1-15.
    21. Jawadi, Fredj & Mallick, Sushanta K. & Sousa, Ricardo M., 2016. "Fiscal and monetary policies in the BRICS: A panel VAR approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 535-542.
    22. Kesavarajah Mayandy, 2019. "Monetary Policy Rules And Macroeconomic Stability: Evidence From Sri Lanka," Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking, Bank Indonesia, vol. 22(4), pages 485-506.
    23. de Mendonça, Helder Ferreira & de Deus, Joseph David Barroso Vasconcelos, 2019. "Central bank forecasts and private expectations: An empirical assessment from three emerging economies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 234-244.
    24. Adewuyi, Adeolu O. & Ogebe, Joseph O., 2019. "The validity of uncovered interest parity: Evidence from african members and non-member of the organisation of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC)," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 229-249.

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