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Utility Values for Health States in Ireland: A Value Set for the EQ-5D-5L


  • Anna Hobbins

    (Queens University Belfast)

  • Luke Barry

    (NUI Galway)

  • Dan Kelleher

    (NUI Galway)

  • Koonal Shah

    (Office of Health Economics)

  • Nancy Devlin

    (Office of Health Economics)

  • Juan Manuel Ramos Goni

    (EuroQol Research Foundation)

  • Ciaran O’Neill

    (Queens University Belfast)


Objective Our objective was to develop a value set based on Irish utility values for the EuroQol 5-Dimension, 5-Level instrument (EQ-5D-5L). Methods The research design and data collection followed a protocol developed by the EuroQol Group. The EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) software was administered using computer-assisted personal interviews to a representative sample of adults resident in Ireland between 2015 and 2016. Utility values were elicited using two stated-preference techniques: time trade-off (TTO) and discrete-choice experiment (DCE). Each respondent completed a valuation exercise in which the EQ-VT system randomly selected one block of ten TTO questions from ten blocks relating to a possible 86 health states. One block of seven DCE pairs from 28 blocks of a possible 196 pairs of health states were randomly selected to accompany this. The relationship between utility values and health states was analysed using a hybrid regression model that combined data from the TTO and DCE techniques and expressed these as a function of the health state presented to the individual. This model estimated coefficients for 20 dummy variables that characterised each health state in the EQ-5D-5L framework, with the lowest level of severity providing the reference category in each domain. The relationship between weighted and unweighted TTO and DCE analyses of main effects was analysed separately. Results Comparison of weighted and unweighted models revealed no substantive differences in results with respect to either DCE or TTO models. The unweighted hybrid model produced estimated effects, the ordering of which was intuitively consistent within each domain: lower levels of health were associated with lower utility values. Differences were evident between domains with respect to valuations; the disutility associated with conditions related to anxiety/depression and pain/discomfort was higher than for other domains. The decrement in utility associated with movement from the highest to the lowest level of health was 0.344 for mobility, 0.287 for self-care, 0.187 for usual activities, 0.510 for pain/discomfort and 0.646 for anxiety/depression. Discussion The results present the first value set based on the EQ-5D-5L framework for a representative sample of residents in Ireland. The set reveals a higher decrement in utility associated with anxiety/depression than with other domains of health. Caution is warranted in comparisons with other value sets. That said, those in England, the Netherlands, Uruguay and China reveal that, whereas Irish values are broadly consistent with respect to mobility, self-care and usual activities, residents of Ireland attach a higher decrement to pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression than do other populations.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Hobbins & Luke Barry & Dan Kelleher & Koonal Shah & Nancy Devlin & Juan Manuel Ramos Goni & Ciaran O’Neill, 2018. "Utility Values for Health States in Ireland: A Value Set for the EQ-5D-5L," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 36(11), pages 1345-1353, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:pharme:v:36:y:2018:i:11:d:10.1007_s40273-018-0690-x
    DOI: 10.1007/s40273-018-0690-x

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alexander C Tsai, 2015. "Home Foreclosure, Health, and Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Individual, Aggregate, and Contextual Associations," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 10(4), pages 1-21, April.
    2. Helen Dakin & Nancy Devlin & Yan Feng & Nigel Rice & Phill O'Neill & David Parkin, 2015. "The Influence of Cost‐Effectiveness and Other Factors on Nice Decisions," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(10), pages 1256-1271, October.
    3. Valérie Paris & Annalisa Belloni, 2013. "Value in Pharmaceutical Pricing," OECD Health Working Papers 63, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Dan Kelleher & Samer Kharroubi & Edel Doherty & Gianluca Baio & Ciaran O’Neill, 2022. "Examining the Association between Polish Migrant Status and Health Preferences Using a Novel Application of a Smaller Design EQ-5D-5L Valuation Study," PharmacoEconomics - Open, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 425-435, May.
    2. Ernest H. Law & A. Simon Pickard & Feng Xie & Surrey M. Walton & Todd A. Lee & Alan Schwartz, 2018. "Parallel Valuation: A Direct Comparison of EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L Societal Value Sets," Medical Decision Making, , vol. 38(8), pages 968-982, November.
    3. Henry, Edward & Cullinan, John, 2021. "Mental health spillovers from serious family illness: Doubly robust estimation using EQ-5D-5L population normative data," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 279(C).
    4. Kelleher, Dan & Barry, Luke & Hobbins, Anna & O'Neill, Stephen & Doherty, Edel & O'Neill, Ciaran, 2020. "Examining the transnational health preferences of a group of Eastern European migrants relative to a European host population using the EQ-5D-5L," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 246(C).
    5. Sullivan, Trudy & Hansen, Paul & Ombler, Franz & Derrett, Sarah & Devlin, Nancy, 2020. "A new tool for creating personal and social EQ-5D-5L value sets, including valuing ‘dead’," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 246(C).
    6. Hobbins, Anna P. & Barry, Luke & Kelleher, Dan & Shah, Koonal & Devlin, Nancy & Ramos Goni, Juan Manuel & O’Neill, Ciaran, 2020. "Do people with private health insurance attach a higher value to health than those without insurance? Results from an EQ-5D-5 L valuation study in Ireland," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 124(6), pages 639-646.

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