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Is per capita real GDP stationary in five southeastern European countries? Fourier unit root test

  • Tsangyao Chang

    ()

  • Chia-Hao Lee

    ()

  • Pei-I Chou

    ()

This study uses the newly developed Fourier unit root test advanced by Enders and Lee ( 2004 , 2009 ) to investigate the time-series properties of real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) for five Southeastern European countries for the period from 1969 to 2009. The empirical results from several conventional unit root tests indicate that the per capita real GDP for all of the countries studied are non-stationary; however, when Enders and Lee ( 2004 , 2009 ) Fourier unit root tests are conducted, one rejects the unit root hypothesis of real GDP per capita in all countries under study. These results have important policy implications for these five Southeastern European countries under study. Copyright Springer-Verlag 2012

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Article provided by Springer in its journal Empirical Economics.

Volume (Year): 43 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 (December)
Pages: 1073-1082

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Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:43:y:2012:i:3:p:1073-1082
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  1. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 1992. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 251-70, July.
  2. Ludlow, Jorge & Enders, Walter, 2000. "Estimating non-linear ARMA models using Fourier coefficients," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 333-347.
  3. Jushan Bai & Pierre Perron, 1998. "Estimating and Testing Linear Models with Multiple Structural Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(1), pages 47-78, January.
  4. Ralf Becker & Walter Enders & Junsoo Lee, 2006. "A Stationarity Test in the Presence of an Unknown Number of Smooth Breaks," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(3), pages 381-409, 05.
  5. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
  6. Pascalau, Razvan, 2008. "Unit Roots Tests with Smooth Breaks: An Application to the Nelson-Plosser Data Set," MPRA Paper 7220, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
  8. Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  9. David E. Rapach, 2002. "Are Real GDP Levels Nonstationary? Evidence from Panel Data Tests," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 473-495, January.
  10. Yin-Wong Cheung & Menzie Chinn, 1995. "Deterministic, stochastic and segmented trends in aggregate output: A cross-country analysis," Macroeconomics 9508005, EconWPA.
  11. Schmidt, Peter & Phillips, C B Peter, 1992. "LM Tests for a Unit Root in the Presence of Deterministic Trends," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 257-87, August.
  12. Robinson Kruse, 2011. "A new unit root test against ESTAR based on a class of modified statistics," Statistical Papers, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 71-85, February.
  13. Chi Keung Marco Lau, 2009. "A more powerful panel unit root test with an application to PPP," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 75-80.
  14. Yin-Wong Cheung & Frank Westermann, 2002. "Output dynamics of the G7 countries--stochastic trends and cyclical movements," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(18), pages 2239-2247.
  15. Tsangyao Chang & Wen-Chi Liu & Shu-Chen Kang & Kuei-Chiu Lee, 2008. "Is Per Capita Real GDP Stationary in Latin American Countries? Evidence from a Panel Stationary Test with Structural Breaks," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(31), pages 1-12.
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  17. Amsler, Christine & Lee, Junsoo, 1995. "An LM Test for a Unit Root in the Presence of a Structural Change," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(02), pages 359-368, February.
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