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Norwegian experiences with tendered buss services


  • Bekken, Jon-Terje
  • Longva, Frode
  • Fearnley, Nils
  • Osland, Oddgeir


Competitive tendering of local public transport services has been allowed in Norway since 1994. By 2005, 28 percent of all route production in Norway was procured on the basis of tendered contracts, covering around 40 percent of all passengers. The majority of the tendered contracts were gross cost contracts, whereas historically, most Norwegian contracts have been net cost contracts. This article analyses the effect of competitive tendering on operating cost and subsidies paid. It is found that competitive tendering reduces costs by 10 percent and that most of the cost reduction has been used to reduce subsidies for public transport by local authorities. The effects of competitive tendering in Norway are smaller compared to other countries. This can be attributed to the fact that the industry had improved efficiency over a long period before competitive tendering was introduced.

Suggested Citation

  • Bekken, Jon-Terje & Longva, Frode & Fearnley, Nils & Osland, Oddgeir, 2006. "Norwegian experiences with tendered buss services," European Transport \ Trasporti Europei, ISTIEE, Institute for the Study of Transport within the European Economic Integration, issue 33, pages 29-40.
  • Handle: RePEc:sot:journl:y:2006:i:33:p:29-40

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Yvrande-Billon, Anne & Menard, Claude, 2005. "Institutional constraints and organizational changes: the case of the British rail reform," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 675-699, April.
    2. Estache, Antonio & Serebrisky, Tomas, 2004. "Where do we stand on transport infrastructure deregulation and public-private partnership?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3356, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cinzia Daraio & Marco Diana & Flavia Di Costa & Claudio Leporelli & Giorgio Matteucci & Alberto Nastasi, 2014. "Efficiency and effectiveness in the urban public transport sector: a critical review with directions for future research," DIAG Technical Reports 2014-14, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    2. Filippini, M. & Koller, M. & Masiero, G., 2015. "Competitive tendering versus performance-based negotiation in Swiss public transport," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 158-168.
    3. John Stanley, 2011. "Public Transport Liberalization: Achievements and Future Directions," Chapters,in: International Handbook of Network Industries, chapter 16 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Mathisen, Terje Andreas, 2016. "Competitive tendering and cross-shareholding in public passenger transport," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 45-48.
    5. Odeck, James, 2008. "The effect of mergers on efficiency and productivity of public transport services," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 696-708, May.
    6. Longva, Frode & Osland, Oddgeir, 2010. "Regulating the regulator: The impact of professional procuring bodies on local public transport policy and its effectiveness," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 118-123.


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