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Spatial Flows and Spatial Patterns

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  • A S Fotheringham

    (Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA)

Abstract

The misspecification of gravity spatial interaction models has recently been described by the author. The bias in parameter estimates that results from such misspecification appears to produce the ‘map pattern effect’ or ‘spatial structure bias’ in estimated distance-decay parameters. A further aspect of the misspecification bias in gravity parameter estimates is explored here. The severity of the bias is shown to vary in a predictable manner with variations in spatial structure. In particular, the bias is shown to be dependent upon the pattern of accessibility that exists within a spatial system. The relevant aspects of this pattern are discussed for intraurban and interurban (or interregional) flow matrices. It is shown that from an examination of the spatial structure of centres in a spatial system it is possible, a priori, to identify whether significant bias will arise in the calibration of a gravity model. Certain configurations of centres are shown theoretically to produce maximal bias. The author thus answers the question, “why do gravity parameter estimates appear to be biased in some systems but not in others?â€

Suggested Citation

  • A S Fotheringham, 1984. "Spatial Flows and Spatial Patterns," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 16(4), pages 529-543, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:envira:v:16:y:1984:i:4:p:529-543
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    Cited by:

    1. Mark D. Partridge & Dan S. Rickman & Kamar Ali & M. Rose Olfert, 2008. "The Geographic Diversity of U.S. Nonmetropolitan Growth Dynamics: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(2), pages 241-266.
    2. Ginsburgh, Victor & Weber, Shlomo & Weyers, Sheila, 2007. "Economics of Literary Translation: A Simple Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 6432, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Felipa De Mello-Sampayo, 2016. "A Spatial Analysis of Mental Healthcare in Texas," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 152-175, June.
    4. Felipa Mello Sampayo, 2006. "The Geographic Distribution of Economic Activities of the USA Multinational Enterprises," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_040, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    5. Reggiani, Aura & Bucci, Pietro & Russo, Giovanni & Haas, Anette & Nijkamp, Peter, 2011. "Regional labour markets and job accessibility in City Network systems in Germany," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 528-536.
    6. Jan Ubøe & Jens Petter Gitlesen & Inge Thorsen, 2008. "Laboratory Testing of Spurious Spatial Structure in Trip Distribution Models," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(3), pages 361-372.
    7. Gitlesen, Jens Petter & Thorsen, Inge & Ubøe, Jan, 2004. "Misspecifications due to aggregation of data in models for journeys-to-work," Discussion Papers 2004/13, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    8. repec:eee:jotrge:v:19:y:2011:i:4:p:596-605 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. de Mello-Sampayo, Felipa, 2014. "Gravity for Health: an Application to State Mental Hospital Admissions in Texas," MPRA Paper 59758, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Matteo Lippi Bruni & Lucia Nobilio & Cristina Ugolini, 2008. "The analysis of a cardiological network in a regulated setting: a spatial interaction approach," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(2), pages 221-233.
    11. Gitlesen, Jens Petter & Thorsen, Inge, 1999. "An Empirical Evaluation of how commuting flows respond to new road connections and Toll Charges," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa107, European Regional Science Association.
    12. Audrey Bossuyt & Laurence Broze & Victor Ginsburgh, 2001. "On invisible trade relations between Mesopotamian cities during the third millennium B.C," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/99274, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    13. Jens Petter Gitlesen & Inge Thorsen & Jan Ubøe, 2004. "Misspecifications in modelling journeys to work," ERSA conference papers ersa04p420, European Regional Science Association.

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