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On Nonexclusive Membership in Competing Joint Ventures


  • Hausman, Jerry A
  • Leonard, Gregory K
  • Tirole, Jean


We evaluate the competitive and governance effects of "duality." Duality refers to the joint membership (e.g., by banks) in competing associations or joint ventures (e.g., Visa and MasterCard). We first show that the not-for-profit nature of the associations along with the usage-based fees they charge yield productive efficiency. We then analyze the impact of (i) membership exclusivity, when the associations remain not-for-profit, and (ii) the conversion into for-profit systems. We illustrate the results in the case of a double-differentiation model that is of independent interest. Finally, we discuss extensions to (i) endogenous system differentiation, and (ii) agency considerations. Copyright 2003 by the RAND Corporation.

Suggested Citation

  • Hausman, Jerry A & Leonard, Gregory K & Tirole, Jean, 2003. " On Nonexclusive Membership in Competing Joint Ventures," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(1), pages 43-62, Spring.
  • Handle: RePEc:rje:randje:v:34:y:2003:i:1:p:43-62

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    8. Bloch, Francis & Markowitz, Paul, 1996. "Optimal disclosure delay in multistage R&D competition," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 159-179.
    9. Jean O. Lanjouw & Mark Schankerman, 1999. "The Quality of Ideas: Measuring Innovation with Multiple Indicators," NBER Working Papers 7345, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2014. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," CPI Journal, Competition Policy International, vol. 10.
    2. Dulleck Uwe & Friederiszick Hans W., 2004. "Die Großen Zwei – Wettbewerb im Kreditkartenmarkt? / The Big Two – How Competitive is the Market for Credit Cards," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 224(4), pages 445-470, August.
    3. Snellman, Heli, 2006. "Automated teller machine network market structure and cash usage," Scientific Monographs, Bank of Finland, number 2006_038.
    4. Josh Lerner & Jean Tirole, 2004. "Efficient Patent Pools," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 691-711, June.
    5. Graeme Guthrie & Julian Wright, 2003. "Competing Payment Schemes," Departmental Working Papers wp0311, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
    6. Graeme Guthrie & Julian Wright, 2007. "COMPETING PAYMENT SCHEMES -super-," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 37-67, March.
    7. Bergman, Mats A., 2005. "A Welfare Ranking of Two-Sided Market Regimes," Working Paper Series 185, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden), revised 01 Sep 2005.
    8. Berardi, Nicoletta & Seabright, Paul, 2010. "Joint Ventures as a Commitment Device Against Lobbies," CEPR Discussion Papers 7714, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. GABSZEWICZ, Jean & WAUTHY, Xavier, 2004. "Two-sided markets and price competition with multi-homing," CORE Discussion Papers 2004030, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).

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