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Notes on Detecting The Effects of Non Tariff Measures


  • Carrère, Céline

    () (CERDI and University of Geneva)

  • de Melo, Jaime

    () (University of Geneva and FERDI)


Alternative approaches to estimating the effects of nontariff measures (NTMs) on trade flows are discussed and evaluated critically. Recent econometric studies point to three results: (i) NTM restrictiveness measures based on an aggregate of ‘core’ NTMs are more restrictive than existing tariffs and, because of export composition towards agricultural products, in the aggregate, these ‘core’ NTMs limit market access most for low-income countries; (ii) Proxies for individual NTMs have a negative effect on the volume of bilateral trade for the detailed product under scrutiny; (iii) harmonization of standards is trade enhancing. Case studies confirm several of these patterns, and also that perceived severity of NTMs varies across products and across destinations for a given product. Across broadly defined imports at the section level, NTMs are more restrictive than the corresponding tariffs with two-thirds of the ad-valorem equivalent estimates in the 25%-50% range. Technical regulations and non-automatic licensing are the most used single-NTM measures and the restrictiveness of technical regulations increases with income per capita.

Suggested Citation

  • Carrère, Céline & de Melo, Jaime, 2011. "Notes on Detecting The Effects of Non Tariff Measures," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 26, pages 136-168.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:integr:0533

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    3. Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 18869, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
    4. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné, 2010. "Trade impact of European measures on GMOs condemned by the WTO panel," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 146(3), pages 495-514, September.
    5. Hoekman, Bernard & Nicita, Alessandro, 2011. "Trade Policy, Trade Costs, and Developing Country Trade," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2069-2079.
    6. Witold Czubala & Ben Shepherd & John S. Wilson, 2009. "Help or Hindrance? The Impact of Harmonised Standards on African Exports †," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 18(5), pages 711-744, November.
    7. Alberto Portugal‐Perez & José‐Daniel Reyes & John S. Wilson, 2010. "Beyond the Information Technology Agreement: Harmonisation of Standards and Trade in Electronics," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(12), pages 1870-1897, December.
    8. Leamer, Edward E., 1990. "Latin America as a target of trade barriers erected by the major developed countries in 1983," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 337-368, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. AfDB AfDB, . "Egypt - Competitiveness Report 2010 Update," Africa Competitiveness Report, African Development Bank, number 372, July-Dece.
    2. Misa Okabe, . "The Impact of ASEAN +1 FTAs on ASEAN's Trade," Chapters, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).
    3. Misa OKABE, 2015. "Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Trade in East Asia," Working Papers DP-2015-01, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).
    4. Salamat Ali, 2016. "Export Response to Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade: Firm-level Evidence from a Developing Country," Discussion Papers 2016-02, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    5. Ederington,Josh & Ruta,Michele, 2016. "Non-tariff measures and the world trading system," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7661, The World Bank.
    6. Vinokurov, Evgeny & Demidenko, Mikhail & Pelipas, Igor & Tochitskaya, Irina & Shymanovich, Gleb & Lipin, Andrey & Movchan, Veronika, 2015. "Estimating the Economic Effects of Reducing Non-Tariff Barriers in the EEU," MPRA Paper 68058, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    NTBs; NTMs; Trade Restriction;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • O24 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy
    • O50 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - General


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