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Allonger la durée de cotisation de l'assurance retraite : une solution équitable ?

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  • Alexis Dantec

Abstract

[fre] L'âge de départ en retraite est pour beaucoup la variable d'ajustement pour assurer l'équilibre des régimes par répartition malgré le vieillissement démographique. Son report ne serait en fait qu'un rattrapage sur l'augmentation de l'espérance de vie, continue depuis 1945. Il permettrait, de surcroît, une répartition plus équitable entre les générations. Précisément, il s'agirait de porter à 42,5 le nombre d'années nécessaire à l'obtention d'une retraite à taux plein.. Pourtant, l'âge de départ en retraite ne s'identifie pas à cette durée de cotisation. Il existe une période de latence, qui s'est accrue, et s'accroît inexorablement, entre la cessation définitive d'activité et la liquidation de la retraite. L'augmentation de la durée de cotisation ne jouerait que sur la deuxième, augmentant cette période de latence et la charge sur les caisses d'allocation chômage qui supportent cette période.. La question de l'allongement de la durée de cotisation peut malgré tout être tranchée par la volonté d'équité entre les générations. La distinction entre les fonctions d'assurance et de redistribution de la retraite permet de définir clairement cette équité. Il ne s'agit en aucun cas de la neutralité actuarielle, qui définit la fonction assurantielle. Une redistribution entre les générations est équitable si, en moyenne, les trajectoires des niveaux de vie sont croissantes au cours du temps. Un allongement de la durée de cotisation progressif jusqu'en 2019 accroîtrait l'inéquité déjà à l'œuvre entre les générations antérieures et postérieures à celle de 1968. [eng] Increase the contribution period in a pay-as-you-go retirement system : a fairness analysis. Alexis Dantec. According to many authors, postponing the retirement age is the solution to bring the pay-as-you-go retirement systems back to equilibrium. For them, it boils down to catching up with life expectancy and would ensure a fairer distribution amongst generations. The solution would be to increase to 42 1/2 years the contribution period to obtain a full pension.. But there is not only one retirement age : the end of the working period and the settlement of the pension are two different moments, and the increase of the contribution period would only influence the latter. The latent period between the two moments would therefore broaden.. Nevertheless, if one tries to measure the equity of such an increase, it appears that a progressive one would worsen the inequity amongst the generations born before and after 1968.. JEL codes : D63, H55, J14, J65.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexis Dantec, 2000. "Allonger la durée de cotisation de l'assurance retraite : une solution équitable ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 74(1), pages 97-130.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_2000_num_74_1_1606
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.2000.1606
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Henri Sterdyniak & Gaël Dupont & Alexis Dantec, 1999. "Les retraites en France : que faire ?," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 68(1), pages 19-81.
    2. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X, 1996. "A Positive Theory of Social Security," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 277-304, June.
    3. Jean-Michel Charpin & Catherine Zaidman & Jean-Marc Aubert & Lucile Olier & Louis-Paul Pelé, 1999. "Réponse : trois remarques, dans le cadre du débat," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 70(1), pages 253-261.
    4. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-444, June.
    5. Bénédicte Gautier & Yannick L'Horty, 2000. "Le temps partiel dans la perspective des 35 heures," Revue de l'OFCE, Programme National Persée, vol. 72(1), pages 99-132.
    6. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
    • J65 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings

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