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Education, effets externes, emploi : le cas de la France

  • Jean Léonard
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    [eng] Education, external effects, employment : French case Jean Léonard Education reappears in the 1980s - 1990s with the «new growth theories» as a factor of economic efficiency rather than as a growth factor as long as the crisis lasts. « Growth Accountancy » (Solow dixit) carried oub by Denison in the 1960s has been modernized showing education as a source of external effects. However, these external effects, undeniable in the economic sphere have to be analysed on a larger scale as cohesion and social integration factors (searching for comparative, and even absolute advantages) any developped society that wishes (at least) to remain as such, will take interest in raising the education level of its population. This is not without raising problems when the growing number of higher education graduates does not (no longer ?) coincide with adequate employment (or supposed as such). The new, and necessary conciliation of individual and collective interests cannot be obtained without revising both this adequation (too often viewed as an « equivalence ») and, maybe, the social rules, which are sources of inequalities. So not the training systems alone are being questioned, but on a larger scale, our societies as well. [fre] L'éducation réapparaît, danslesannées 1980-1990, avecles «nouvelles théories de la croissance », comme un facteur d'efficacité économique, plutôt que comme facteur de croissance, quand la crise dure: la « comptabilité de la croissance » (Solow dixit) effectuée par Denison dans les années 1960 est modernisée, faisant apparaître l'éducation comme source d'effets externes. Cependant ces effets externes doivent être analysés de façon plus large, comme facteurs de cohésion sociale. Alors, tant pour des raisons d'ordre national qu'international (à la recherche d'avantages comparatifs, voire absolus), toute société développée, qui veut pour le moins le rester, a avantage à élever le niveau d'éducation de sa population. Cela ne va pas sans poser des problèmes quand le nombre croissant de diplômés de l'enseignement supérieur ne rencontre plus l'adéquation passée entre formation et emploi. La conciliation des désirs individuels et de l'intérêt collectif ne peut se faire sans remettre en question cette adéquation (vue comme « équivalence ») et, peut-être bien, des règles sociales qui sont sources d'inégalités. La question n'est donc pas posée aux seuls systèmes de formation, mais à nos sociétés, plus globalement.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/ofce.1996.1430
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/doc/ofce_0751-6614_1996_num_58_1_1430
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    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

    Volume (Year): 58 (1996)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 67-102

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1996_num_58_1_1430
    Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1996.1430
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/ofce

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    1. Paul Romer, 1990. "Are Nonconvexities Important For Understanding Growth?," NBER Working Papers 3271, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Alain Gallais & Bernard Gautier, 1994. "Structure des qualifications et échanges extérieurs français," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 279(1), pages 35-46.
    3. Arrow, Kenneth J., 1973. "Higher education as a filter," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 193-216, July.
    4. repec:cai:popine:popu_p1970_25n1_0041 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Ellis W. Tallman, 1992. "Human capital investment and economic growth: new routes in theory address old questions," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Sep, pages 1-12.
    6. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    7. Robert M. Solow, 1988. "La théorie de la croissance et son évolution," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 3(2), pages 3-27.
    8. Alain Desrosières & Alain Goy & Laurent Thévenot, 1983. "L'identité sociale dans le travail statistique : la nouvelle nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 152(1), pages 55-81.
    9. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2232, David K. Levine.
    10. Kenneth J. Arrow, 1962. "The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 155-173.
    11. Tallman, E.W. & Wang, P., 1992. "Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth: New Routes in Theory and Address Old Questions," Papers 9-92-9, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
    12. Taubman, Paul J & Wales, Terence J, 1973. "Higher Education, Mental Ability, and Screening," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(1), pages 28-55, Jan.-Feb..
    13. Catin, M., 1991. "Economies d'agglomeration et gains de productivite," Papers 133, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
    14. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1990. "Why Doesn't Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 92-96, May.
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