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Le rôle des externalités dans les systèmes d'innovation. Nouveaux regards sur le dilemme de la propriété intellectuelle

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  • Pierre-Benoît Joly

Abstract

[fre] Le rôle des externalités dans les systèmes d'innovation. Nouveaux regards sur le dilemme de la propriété intellectuelle. . Les droits de la propriété intellectuelle trouvent leur justification dans le postulat largement partagé par les économistes selon lequel un faible niveau d'appropriation n'est pas compatible avec de forts investissements privés dans la R&D. Or différentes analyses empiriques ont montré que la libre circulation des connaissances est compatible avec de fortes incitations à la R&D. Ce rôle non conventionnel des externalités est le plus souvent observé dans les nouvelles technologies. Cet article vise à expliquer ce paradoxe à partir d'une distinction de différentes catégories d'effets externes de la R&D. L'analyse théorique réalisée sur ces bases détermine les conditions dans lesquelles on a avantage à favoriser la circulation des informations. Suit une discussion des différents systèmes qui permettent de traiter distinctement les deux catégories d'externalités, en particulier la disposition des licences de dépendance de la loi française du brevet d'invention. [eng] Externalities and innovation a new look at the patent system. . The patent System is usually justified by the assumption that a weak level of appropriability is not compatible with high R&D investments. However, some recent empirical studies on new technologies have shown that a rather free circulation of technological information is compatible with high R&D incentives. The aim of this paper is to analyse this paradoxical situation. After a conceptual distinction between externalities and spill-overs, a game theory model leads to precise the situations in which it is necessary to permit a high level of information exchange. We then suggest that the " dependency licences " of the French Patent Law are very well suited to deal with such situations.

Suggested Citation

  • Pierre-Benoît Joly, 1992. "Le rôle des externalités dans les systèmes d'innovation. Nouveaux regards sur le dilemme de la propriété intellectuelle," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 43(4), pages 785-796.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:reveco:reco_0035-2764_1992_num_43_4_409395
    DOI: 10.3406/reco.1992.409395
    Note: DOI:10.3406/reco.1992.409395
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Autant-Bernard, Corinne & Fadairo, Muriel & Massard, Nadine, 2013. "Knowledge diffusion and innovation policies within the European regions: Challenges based on recent empirical evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 196-210.
    2. Joly, P. B. & Mangematin, V., 1996. "Profile of public laboratories, industrial partnerships and organisation of R & D: the dynamics of industrial relationships in a large research organisation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 901-922, September.
    3. Joly, Pierre-Benoit & de Looze, Marie-Angele, 1996. "An analysis of innovation strategies and industrial differentiation through patent applications: the case of plant biotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1027-1046, October.

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