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The Critical Importance of Careers in Collaborative Scientific Research

  • Paula E. Stephan
  • Sharon G. Levin

[eng] This paper examines why scientific productivity in the United States is often studied at the individual level and often in the context of a career despite evidence that discovery is a collaborative process. We argue that the focus stems in part from a research tradition in the US which places great emphasis on the analysis of individual-level data. It also results from the fact that in the United States in the academic sector, where the majority of research is produced, it is the responsibility of the individual investigator to secure the funding required to support research. The paper also examines major changes at work in the United States which threaten to undermine the way in which the research enterprise operates. [fre] Cet article s'interroge sur les raisons pour lesquelles aux États-Unis la productivité scientifique est le plus souvent étudiée, au niveau des individus et de leur carrière, malgré le fait connu que la découverte est un processus coopératif. Notre hypothèse est que ceci provient d'une tradition aux États-Unis qui met fortement l'accent sur l'analyse de données individuelles. Cela résulte aussi du fait que dans le monde académique aux États-Unis c'est au chercheur individuel qu'incombe la responsabilité de trouver les moyens de financements de la recherche. L'article analyse également les principaux changements à l'oeuvre aux États-Unis qui menacent les modes de fonctionnement des entreprises de recherche aux États-Unis

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue d'économie industrielle.

Volume (Year): 79 (1997)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 45-61

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Handle: RePEc:prs:recind:rei_0154-3229_1997_num_79_1_1652
Note: DOI:10.3406/rei.1997.1652
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