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The Critical Importance of Careers in Collaborative Scientific Research

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  • Paula E. Stephan
  • Sharon G. Levin

Abstract

[eng] This paper examines why scientific productivity in the United States is often studied at the individual level and often in the context of a career despite evidence that discovery is a collaborative process. We argue that the focus stems in part from a research tradition in the US which places great emphasis on the analysis of individual-level data. It also results from the fact that in the United States in the academic sector, where the majority of research is produced, it is the responsibility of the individual investigator to secure the funding required to support research. The paper also examines major changes at work in the United States which threaten to undermine the way in which the research enterprise operates. [fre] Cet article s'interroge sur les raisons pour lesquelles aux États-Unis la productivité scientifique est le plus souvent étudiée, au niveau des individus et de leur carrière, malgré le fait connu que la découverte est un processus coopératif. Notre hypothèse est que ceci provient d'une tradition aux États-Unis qui met fortement l'accent sur l'analyse de données individuelles. Cela résulte aussi du fait que dans le monde académique aux États-Unis c'est au chercheur individuel qu'incombe la responsabilité de trouver les moyens de financements de la recherche. L'article analyse également les principaux changements à l'oeuvre aux États-Unis qui menacent les modes de fonctionnement des entreprises de recherche aux États-Unis

Suggested Citation

  • Paula E. Stephan & Sharon G. Levin, 1997. "The Critical Importance of Careers in Collaborative Scientific Research," Revue d'Économie Industrielle, Programme National Persée, vol. 79(1), pages 45-61.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:recind:rei_0154-3229_1997_num_79_1_1652 Note: DOI:10.3406/rei.1997.1652
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Mangematin, V., 2000. "PhD job market: professional trajectories and incentives during the PhD," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 741-756, June.
    2. Paul A. David & Louise C. Keely, 2003. "The Economics of Scientific Research Coalitions: Collaborative Network Formation in the Presence of Multiple Funding Agencies," Chapters,in: Science and Innovation, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Breschi, Stefano & Lissoni, Francesco, 2001. "Knowledge Spillovers and Local Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, pages 975-1005.
    4. Gonzalez-Brambila, Claudia N. & Veloso, Francisco M. & Krackhardt, David, 2013. "The impact of network embeddedness on research output," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 1555-1567.
    5. Sabatier, Mareva & Chollet, Barthélemy, 2017. "Is there a first mover advantage in science? Pioneering behavior and scientific production in nanotechnology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 522-533.
    6. Sabharwal, Meghna & Hu, Qian, 2013. "Participation in university-based research centers: Is it helping or hurting researchers?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1301-1311.
    7. Bozeman, Barry & Mangematin, Vincent, 2004. "Editor's introduction: building and deploying scientific and technical human capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 565-568, May.
    8. Réjean Landry & Nabil Amara & Mathieu Ouimet, 2007. "Determinants of knowledge transfer: evidence from Canadian university researchers in natural sciences and engineering," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 32(6), pages 561-592, December.
    9. Carayol, Nicolas & Matt, Mireille, 2004. "Does research organization influence academic production?: Laboratory level evidence from a large European university," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1081-1102, October.
    10. repec:spr:scient:v:101:y:2014:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-014-1424-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:spr:scient:v:49:y:2000:i:3:d:10.1023_a:1010537606969 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Nicolas Carayol, 2003. "The incentive properties of the Matthew Effect in the academic competition," Working Papers of BETA 2003-11, Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UDS, Strasbourg.

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