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Demographic Transition and Youth Employment in Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • G. M. Arif

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • Nusrat Chaudhry

    (Khushhali Bank, Islamabad.)

Abstract

There is convincing evidence that Pakistan has entered the demographic bonus phase; child dependency is declining and youth share in the total population is rising. This paper has examined youth employment in the context of demographic transition evidenced since the early 1990s. Changes in the level of educational attainment have also been analysed. The study has used the data from Pakistan Demographic Surveys and Labour Force Surveys carried out between 1990 and 2005. Findings of the study show that the benefits of demographic transition in terms of rising share of youth in the total population has partially been translated through development of their human capital and productive absorption in the local labour market. While the pace of human capital formation seems to be satisfactory in urban Pakistan, it is dismal in rural areas, particularly for females. High levels of both female inactivity across the education categories and unemployment for males as well as females urge a strong youth employment policy in Pakistan to reap the benefits of the ongoing demographic transition. Youth are a source of development, and a high priority may be placed on preparing them with the skills needed for their adjustment in the labour market.

Suggested Citation

  • G. M. Arif & Nusrat Chaudhry, 2008. "Demographic Transition and Youth Employment in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(1), pages 27-70.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:47:y:2008:i:1:p:27-70
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    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2008/Volume1/27-70.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Durr-e-Nayab, 2008. "Demographic Dividend or Demographic Threat in Pakistan?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 47(1), pages 1-26.
    2. Geoffrey McNicoll, 2006. "Policy Lessons of the East Asian Demographic Transition," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 32(1), pages 1-25.
    3. Ronald Lee, 2003. "The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(4), pages 167-190, Fall.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tasnim Khan & Fatima Yousaf, 2013. "Unemployment Duration of First Time Job Seekers: A Case Study of Bahawalpur," Asian Journal of Economic Modelling, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(1), pages 8-19, December.
    2. Ammara Cheema, 2013. "Upcoming picture of ageing population: Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 47(5), pages 2399-2413, August.
    3. repec:pid:wpaper:2012:5 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Naushin Mahmood, 2009. "Population and Development Demographic Research at PIDE," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2009:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi, December.
    5. Deluna, Roperto & Berdos, Kleint, 2015. "Factors Affecting Length of Job Search and Job Switching in Davao City, Philippines," MPRA Paper 68802, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. G. M. Arif & Nasir Iqbal & Shujaat Farooq, 2011. "The Persistence and Transition of Rural Poverty in Pakistan: 1998-2004," PIDE-Working Papers 2011:74, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    7. G. M. Arif & Shujaat Farooq, 2012. "Poverty Reduction in Pakistan: Learning from the Experience of China," PIDE Monograph Series 2012:5, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Demographic Transition; Youth; Employment; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

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