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An extended hazard model with longitudinal covariates


  • Y. K. Tseng
  • Y. R. Su
  • M. Mao
  • J. L. Wang


In clinical trials and other medical studies, it has become increasingly common to observe simultaneously an event time of interest and longitudinal covariates. In the literature, joint modelling approaches have been employed to analyse both survival and longitudinal processes and to investigate their association. However, these approaches focus mostly on developing adaptive and flexible longitudinal processes based on a prespecified survival model, most commonly the Cox proportional hazards model. In this paper, we propose a general class of semiparametric hazard regression models, referred to as the extended hazard model, for the survival component. This class includes two popular survival models, the Cox proportional hazards model and the accelerated failure time model, as special cases. The proposed model is flexible for modelling event data, and its nested structure facilitates model selection for the survival component through likelihood ratio tests. A pseudo joint likelihood approach is proposed for estimating the unknown parameters and components via a Monte Carlo em algorithm. Asymptotic theory for the estimators is developed together with theory for the semiparametric likelihood ratio tests. The performance of the procedure is demonstrated through simulation studies. A case study featuring data from a Taiwanese HIV/AIDS cohort study further illustrates the usefulness of the extended hazard model.

Suggested Citation

  • Y. K. Tseng & Y. R. Su & M. Mao & J. L. Wang, 2015. "An extended hazard model with longitudinal covariates," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 102(1), pages 135-150.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:biomet:v:102:y:2015:i:1:p:135-150.

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Yi-Kuan Tseng & Ken-Ning Hsu & Ya-Fang Yang, 2014. "A semiparametric extended hazard regression model with time-dependent covariates," Journal of Nonparametric Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(1), pages 115-128, March.
    2. Zeng, Donglin & Lin, D.Y., 2007. "Efficient Estimation for the Accelerated Failure Time Model," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 1387-1396, December.
    3. Fushing Hsieh & Yi-Kuan Tseng & Jane-Ling Wang, 2006. "Joint Modeling of Survival and Longitudinal Data: Likelihood Approach Revisited," Biometrics, The International Biometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 1037-1043, December.
    4. Dimitris Rizopoulos & Geert Verbeke & Geert Molenberghs, 2008. "Shared parameter models under random effects misspecification," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 95(1), pages 63-74.
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    7. Jimin Ding & Jane-Ling Wang, 2008. "Modeling Longitudinal Data with Nonparametric Multiplicative Random Effects Jointly with Survival Data," Biometrics, The International Biometric Society, vol. 64(2), pages 546-556, June.
    8. Jones, M. C., 1990. "The performance of kernel density functions in kernel distribution function estimation," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 129-132, February.
    9. Yi-Kuan Tseng & Fushing Hsieh & Jane-Ling Wang, 2005. "Joint modelling of accelerated failure time and longitudinal data," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 92(3), pages 587-603, September.
    10. Jones, M. C. & Sheather, S. J., 1991. "Using non-stochastic terms to advantage in kernel-based estimation of integrated squared density derivatives," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 511-514, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Chyong-Mei & Shen, Pao-sheng & Tseng, Yi-Kuan, 2018. "Semiparametric transformation joint models for longitudinal covariates and interval-censored failure time," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 116-127.

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