Public Choice and the EPA: Empirical Evidence on Carbon Emissions Violations
This study provides evidence of public choice determinants of the penalties assessed by the Environmental Protection Agency for carbon emissions violations. Following the work of Stigler (1971), Peltzman (1976), Tollison (1982), and Tullock (1989), this study points out that powerful business interest groups are able to use their political influence to shape EPA environmental policy for urban areas. The statistical estimates presented here suggest that business groups have limited power (through lobbying activity) in affecting the probability of the occurrence of an EPA citation for carbon emissions violations, while they may have considerable power in influencing the degree of an EPA citation for carbon emissions standards, once a citation occurs. Copyright 1995 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
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