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Pressure-Group Influence and Institutional Change: Branch-Banking Legislation during the Great Depression

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  • Abrams, Burton A
  • Settle, Russell F

Abstract

Between 1931 and 1935 the change in the state laws governing the organizational structure of banking was significant. Twenty-two states relaxed restrictions over branch banking, even though many had previously prohibited it. We apply a model of pressure-group and rent-seeking behavior to investigate the reasons underlying this remarkable shift in the institutional arrangements for regulating the structure of the banking industry. The findings indicate that the extraordinarily high rate of bank failures tipped the political balance toward the pro-branching forces in many states. However, in a number of states growth in the influence of branch and group bankers and increases in urbanization were largely responsible for the relaxation of restrictions over branch banking. Copyright 1993 by Kluwer Academic Publishers

Suggested Citation

  • Abrams, Burton A & Settle, Russell F, 1993. "Pressure-Group Influence and Institutional Change: Branch-Banking Legislation during the Great Depression," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 77(4), pages 687-705, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:pubcho:v:77:y:1993:i:4:p:687-705
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    Cited by:

    1. Pierre C. Boyer & Jorge Ponce, 2011. "Central Banks and Banking Supervision Reform," Chapters,in: Handbook of Central Banking, Financial Regulation and Supervision, chapter 6 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Almazan, Andres, 2002. "A Model of Competition in Banking: Bank Capital vs Expertise," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 87-121, January.
    3. Boyer, Pierre C. & Ponce, Jorge, 2012. "Regulatory capture and banking supervision reform," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 206-217.
    4. Kris James Mitchener, 2007. "Are Prudential Supervision and Regulation Pillars of Financial Stability? Evidence from the Great Depression," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50, pages 273-302.
    5. Potters, Jan & Sloof, Randolph, 1996. "Interest groups: A survey of empirical models that try to assess their influence," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 403-442, November.
    6. Pierre C. Boyer & Jorge Ponce, 2010. "Central banks, regulatory capture and banking supervision reform," Documentos de trabajo 2010003, Banco Central del Uruguay.
    7. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 1998. "What Drives Deregulation? Economics and Politics of the Relaxation of Bank Branching Restrictions," NBER Working Papers 6637, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 2014. "Regulation and Deregulation of the U.S. Banking Industry: Causes, Consequences, and Implications for the Future," NBER Chapters,in: Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned?, pages 485-543 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 2001. "Obstacles to Optimal Policy: The Interplay of Politics and Economics in Shaping Bank Supervision and Regulation Reforms," NBER Chapters,in: Prudential Supervision: What Works and What Doesn't, pages 233-272 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Charles W. Calomiris & Stephen H. Haber, 2014. "Interest Groups and the Glass-Steagall Act," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 11(4), pages 14-18, 01.
    11. repec:ces:ifodic:v:11:y:2014:i:4:p:19105950 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Thomas A. Garrett & Gary A. Wagner & David C. Wheelock, 2005. "A spatial analysis of state banking regulation," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(4), pages 575-595, November.
    13. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 2000. "Obstacles to Optimal Policy: The Interplay of Politics and Economics in Shaping Bank Supervision and Regulation Reforms," CRSP working papers 512, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
    14. International Monetary Fund, 2006. "Regulatory Capture in Banking," IMF Working Papers 06/34, International Monetary Fund.
    15. VanHoose, David, 2011. "Systemic Risk and Macroprudential Bank Regulation: A Critical Appraisal," Journal of Financial Transformation, Capco Institute, vol. 33, pages 45-60.
    16. Kris James Mitchener, 2006. "Are Prudential Supervision and Regulation Pillars of Financial Stability? Evidence from the Great Depression," NBER Working Papers 12074, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 1997. "The political economy of deregulation: evidence from the relaxation of bank branching restrictions in the United States," Research Paper 9720, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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