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Explaining Diversities in Age-Specific Life Expectancies and Values of Life Saving: A Numerical Analysis

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  • Isaac Ehrlich

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  • Yong Yin

Abstract

To what extent can life protection account for observed diversities in age-specific life expectancies across individuals and over time? We provide answers via calibrated simulations of a life-cycle model where life’s end is stochastic, and age-specific mortality hazards are endogenous outcomes of life protection, set jointly with life insurance and annuities. Our model links mortality hazards and values of life saving (VLS) as “dual variables”, and offers new insights about the measurement of VLS. Life protection is estimated to account for non-trivial portions of observed levels and inequalities in life expectancies and empirical estimates of VLS by age and education, and over time. Copyright Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Suggested Citation

  • Isaac Ehrlich & Yong Yin, 2005. "Explaining Diversities in Age-Specific Life Expectancies and Values of Life Saving: A Numerical Analysis," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 129-162, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jrisku:v:31:y:2005:i:2:p:129-162
    DOI: 10.1007/s11166-005-3552-9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Antoine Bommier & Bertrand Villeneuve, 2012. "Risk Aversion and the Value of Risk to Life," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 79(1), pages 77-104, March.
    2. Isaac Ehrlich & Yong Yin, 2013. "Equilibrium Health Spending and Population Aging in a Model of Endogenous Growth: Will the GDP Share of Health Spending Keep Rising?," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 411-447.
    3. Li-Shiun Chen & Ping Wang & Yao Yao, 2017. "Smoking, Health Capital, and Longevity: Evaluation of Personalized Cessation Treatments in a Lifecycle Model with Heterogeneous Agents," NBER Working Papers 23820, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy, 2007. "Education and Consumption: The Effects of Education in the Household Compared to the Marketplace," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 1(1), pages 9-35.
    5. Tamara Fioroni, 2010. "Optimal savings and health spending over the life cycle," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 11(4), pages 355-365, August.
    6. Jason M. Fletcher & David E. Frisvold, 2009. "Higher Education and Health Investments: Does More Schooling Affect Preventive Health Care Use?," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(2), pages 144-176.
    7. Titus Galama & Hans van Kippersluis, 2013. "Health Inequalities through the Lens of Health Capital Theory Issues, Solutions, and Future Directions," Working Papers WR-1011, RAND Corporation.
    8. David R. Mann, 2012. "Why We Fight: Understanding Military Participation over the Life Cycle," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(4), pages 279-315.
    9. Nattavudh Powdthavee, 2010. "Does Education Reduce the Risk of Hypertension? Estimating the Biomarker Effect of Compulsory Schooling in England," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(2), pages 173-202.
    10. Hammitt, James K. & Robinson, Lisa A., 2011. "The Income Elasticity of the Value per Statistical Life: Transferring Estimates between High and Low Income Populations," Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(01), pages 1-29, January.
    11. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 2007. "The Value of Life and the Rise in Health Spending," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(1), pages 39-72.
    12. Isaac Ehrlich, 2009. "The Mystery of Human Capital as Engine of Growth, or Why the US Became the Economic Superpower in the 20th Century," Ensayos Económicos, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department, vol. 1(56), pages 41-93, October -.
    13. Beni­tez-Silva, Hugo & Ni, Huan, 2008. "Health status and health dynamics in an empirical model of expected longevity," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 564-584, May.
    14. Martin Ljunge, 2012. "The Spirit of the Welfare State? Adaptation in the Demand for Social Insurance," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 6(3), pages 187-223.
    15. Julien Hugonnier & Florian Pelgrin & Pascal St-Amour, 2009. "Health and (other) Asset Holdings," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 09-18, Swiss Finance Institute.
    16. Guang-Zhen Sun & Yew-Kwang Ng, 2008. "Finite Life Expectancy And The Age-Dependent Value Of A Statistical Life," Monash Economics Working Papers 12/08, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    17. Paul Heaton, 2008. "Childhood Educational Disruption and Later Life Outcomes: Evidence from Prince Edward County," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(2), pages 154-187.
    18. Joseph E. Aldy & W. Kip Viscusi, 2008. "Adjusting the Value of a Statistical Life for Age and Cohort Effects," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 573-581, August.
    19. Kip Viscusi, W. & Aldy, Joseph E., 2007. "Labor market estimates of the senior discount for the value of statistical life," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 377-392, May.
    20. repec:eee:joecag:v:6:y:2015:i:c:p:5-12 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4812 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Titus Galama, 2011. "A Contribution to Health Capital Theory," Working Papers WR-831, RAND Corporation.
    23. Cook, Adam & Ehrlich, Isaac, 2018. "Was Higher Education a Major Channel through which the United States Became an Economic Superpower in the 20th Century?," ADBI Working Papers 820, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    24. Julien Hugonnier & Florian Pelgrin, 2013. "Health and (Other) Asset Holdings," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(2), pages 663-710.
    25. Jihong Ding & Minglai Zhu, 2009. "A theoretical investigation of the reformed public health insurance in urban China," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer;Higher Education Press, vol. 4(1), pages 1-29, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    endogenous mortality; uncertainty; human capital; stochastic optimization; calibrated simulations; self-protection; annuities; life insurance; longevity;

    JEL classification:

    • C6 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
    • D8 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty
    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health

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