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Comparing Cournot and Bertrand equilibria in an asymmetric duopoly with product R&D

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  • Ming Chang
  • Yan-Ching Ho

Abstract

We compare the Cournot and Bertrand equilibria in an asymmetric duopoly with product R&D competition. If a firm’s marginal cost is lower than that of its rival, then this firm (its rival) is referred to as the more (less) efficient firm. Under each mode of competition, there are three types of equilibria: blockaded-entry, deterred-entry, and accommodated-entry. Moreover, the presence of R&D investment makes it harder for the less efficient firm to survive. Cournot competition entails a unique equilibrium, whereas Bertrand competition may yield two equilibria. It is harder for the less efficient firm to survive under Bertrand competition than under Cournot competition. Versus Cournot competition, Bertrand competition yields higher industry output, and it shifts production from the less efficient firm to the more efficient firm. This result, together with the known size effect, explains the following three findings. First, the more efficient firm has a normal output ranking, whereas the less efficient firm may demonstrate an output reversal. Second, the more efficient firm may demonstrate a R&D reversal, whereas the less efficient firm has a normal R&D ranking (its Cournot R&D effort exceeds its Bertrand R&D effort). Third, Bertrand competition is more welfare-efficient than Cournot competition. Copyright Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

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  • Ming Chang & Yan-Ching Ho, 2014. "Comparing Cournot and Bertrand equilibria in an asymmetric duopoly with product R&D," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 113(2), pages 133-174, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jeczfn:v:113:y:2014:i:2:p:133-174
    DOI: 10.1007/s00712-013-0370-4
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Kyung Hwan Baik & Sang-Kee Kim, 2020. "Observable versus unobservable R&D investments in duopolies," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 130(1), pages 37-66, June.
    2. Nobuyuki Takashima & Yasunori Ouchida, 2020. "Quality‐improving R&D and merger policy in a differentiated duopoly: Cournot and Bertrand equilibria," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 41(7), pages 1338-1348, October.
    3. Xing, Mingqing & Tan, Tingting & Wang, Xia, 2021. "Emission taxes and environmental R&D risk choices in a duopoly market," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    R&D; Cournot equilibrium; Bertrand equilibrium ; Asymmetric duopoly; Corner equilibrium; L11; L13;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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