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U.S. professional football game-day attendance


  • Andrew Welki
  • Thomas Zlatoper


This paper uses Tobit analysis to estimate a model which explains game-day attendance at professional football games in the U.S. Several potential determinants of attendance are accounted for in the model. The data used in the analysis pertain to 392 regular season games played during the 1986 and 1987 National Football League seasons. The estimation results suggest that attendance is greater when the opposing teams—particularly, the home team—are of higher quality. There is also evidence that games expected to be close in score are more heavily attended than those that are not. Rainy conditions reduce fan turnout, although warmer temperatures lessen the negative effect of precipitation. Higher ticket prices lead to lower attendance, and fans are apparently indifferent to whether games are played either indoors or outdoors. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 1999

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew Welki & Thomas Zlatoper, 1999. "U.S. professional football game-day attendance," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 27(3), pages 285-298, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:atlecj:v:27:y:1999:i:3:p:285-298
    DOI: 10.1007/BF02299579

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. anonymous, 1978. "Communication," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 24(9), pages 919-919, May.
    2. Peter J. Sloane, 2000. "The Regulation of Professional Team Sports," IASE Conference Papers 0003, International Association of Sports Economists.
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    Cited by:

    1. Budzinski, Oliver & Feddersen, Arne, 2015. "Grundlagen der Sportnachfrage: Theorie und Empirie der Einflussfaktoren auf die Zuschauernachfrage," Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers 94, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics.
    2. Biner, Burhan, 2014. "Parity in professional sports when revenues are maximized," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 12-20.
    3. David Forrest & Robert Simmons & Babatunde Buraimo, 2005. "Outcome Uncertainty And The Couch Potato Audience," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 52(4), pages 641-661, September.
    4. Biner, Burhan, 2009. "Equal Strength or Dominant Teams: Policy Analysis of NFL," MPRA Paper 17920, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Wayne DeSarbo & Heungsun Hwang & Ashley Stadler Blank & Eelco Kappe, 2015. "Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 80(2), pages 516-534, June.
    6. Jakee, Keith & Kenneally, Martin & Mitchell, Hamish, 2010. "Asymmetries in scheduling slots and game-day revenues: An example from the Australian Football League," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 50-64, February.

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