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A Generalized Measure of Riskiness

  • Turan G. Bali


    (McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057)

  • Nusret Cakici


    (Graduate School of Business, Fordham University, New York, New York 10023)

  • Fousseni Chabi-Yo


    (Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

Registered author(s):

    This paper proposes a generalized measure of riskiness that nests the original measures pioneered by Aumann and Serrano (Aumann, R. J., R. Serrano. 2008. An economic index of riskiness. J. Political Econom. 116(5) 810-836) and Foster and Hart (Foster, D. P., S. Hart. 2009. An operational measure of riskiness. J. Political Econom. 117(5) 785-814). The paper introduces the generalized options' implied measure of riskiness based on the risk-neutral return distribution of financial securities. It also provides asset allocation implications and shows that the forward-looking measures of riskiness successfully predict the cross section of 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month-ahead risk-adjusted returns of individual stocks. The empirical results indicate that the generalized measure of riskiness is able to rank equity portfolios based on their expected returns per unit of risk and hence yields a more efficient strategy for maximizing expected return of the portfolio while minimizing its risk. This paper was accepted by Wei Xiong, finance.

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    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

    Volume (Year): 57 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 8 (August)
    Pages: 1406-1423

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:57:y:2011:i:8:p:1406-1423
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    1. Roberto Serrano & Robert J. Aumann, 2007. "An Economic Index Of Riskiness," Working Papers wp2007_0706, CEMFI.
    2. Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean-Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228.
    3. Dean Foster & Sergiu Hart, 2007. "An Operational Measure of Riskiness," Levine's Bibliography 843644000000000095, UCLA Department of Economics.
    4. Hadar, Josef & Russell, William R, 1969. "Rules for Ordering Uncertain Prospects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(1), pages 25-34, March.
    5. Gurdip Bakshi & Nikunj Kapadia & Dilip Madan, 2003. "Stock Return Characteristics, Skew Laws, and the Differential Pricing of Individual Equity Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 101-143.
    6. Xing, Yuhang & Zhang, Xiaoyan & Zhao, Rui, 2010. "What Does the Individual Option Volatility Smirk Tell Us About Future Equity Returns?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(03), pages 641-662, June.
    7. Tim Bollerslev & George Tauchen & Hao Zhou, 2009. "Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(11), pages 4463-4492, November.
    8. Ait-Sahalia, Yacine & Lo, Andrew W., 2000. "Nonparametric risk management and implied risk aversion," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 9-51.
    9. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1970. "Increasing risk: I. A definition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 225-243, September.
    10. Hodrick, Robert J, 1992. "Dividend Yields and Expected Stock Returns: Alternative Procedures for Inference and Measurement," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 5(3), pages 357-86.
    11. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
    12. Diamond, Peter A. & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1974. "Increases in risk and in risk aversion," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 337-360, July.
    13. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1971. "Increasing risk II: Its economic consequences," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 66-84, March.
    14. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
    15. Merton, Robert C, 1973. "An Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(5), pages 867-87, September.
    16. G. Hanoch & H. Levy, 1969. "The Efficiency Analysis of Choices Involving Risk," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(3), pages 335-346.
    17. Bakshi, Gurdip & Panayotov, George & Skoulakis, Georgios, 2011. "Improving the predictability of real economic activity and asset returns with forward variances inferred from option portfolios," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(3), pages 475-495, June.
    18. Turan G. Bali & Armen Hovakimian, 2009. "Volatility Spreads and Expected Stock Returns," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(11), pages 1797-1812, November.
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