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A Portfolio Approach to Risk Reduction in Discretely Rebalanced Option Hedges


  • Antonio S. Mello

    (School of Business, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 975 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1323)

  • Henrik J. Neuhaus

    (The Nikko Securities Company, 55 Victoria Street, London SW11I 0EU, United Kingdom)


This paper analyses the accumulated hedging errors generated by discretely rebalanced option hedges. We show that simple generalizations of the prior research can underestimate the variance of the accumulated hedging errors and that even with daily rebalancing, these accumulated hedging errors can introduce substantial risk in arbitrage strategies suggested by the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We also show that the correlation between the accumulated hedging errors for different options can be quite high, so that the risk of arbitrage due to hedging errors can be substantially reduced by optimally combining options into portfolios. The results also suggest that tests of market pricing of traded options which are based on employing a portfolio approach are likely to be much better specified than the standard tests that focus on individual options.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonio S. Mello & Henrik J. Neuhaus, 1998. "A Portfolio Approach to Risk Reduction in Discretely Rebalanced Option Hedges," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(7), pages 921-934, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:44:y:1998:i:7:p:921-934

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Leland, Hayne E, 1985. " Option Pricing and Replication with Transactions Costs," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(5), pages 1283-1301, December.
    2. Whaley, Robert E., 1982. "Valuation of American call options on dividend-paying stocks : Empirical tests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 29-58, March.
    3. Robert C. Merton, 2005. "Theory of rational option pricing," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Theory Of Valuation, chapter 8, pages 229-288 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Figlewski, Stephen, 1989. " Options Arbitrage in Imperfect Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(5), pages 1289-1311, December.
    5. Whaley, Robert E, 1986. " Valuation of American Futures Options: Theory and Empirical Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 127-150, March.
    6. Gilster, John E., 1990. "The Systematic Risk of Discretely Rebalanced Option Hedges," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(04), pages 507-516, December.
    7. Wiggins, James B., 1987. "Option values under stochastic volatility: Theory and empirical estimates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 351-372, December.
    8. Chiras, Donald P. & Manaster, Steven, 1978. "The information content of option prices and a test of market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2-3), pages 213-234.
    9. Boyle, Phelim P. & Emanuel, David, 1980. "Discretely adjusted option hedges," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 259-282, September.
    10. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Miklavž Mastinšek, 2006. "Discrete–time delta hedging and the Black–Scholes model with transaction costs," Mathematical Methods of Operations Research, Springer;Gesellschaft für Operations Research (GOR);Nederlands Genootschap voor Besliskunde (NGB), vol. 64(2), pages 227-236, October.
    2. Bas Peeters & Cees L. Dert & André Lucas, 2003. "Black Scholes for Portfolios of Options in Discrete Time: the Price is Right, the Hedge is wrong," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-090/2, Tinbergen Institute.


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